AN ACCOUNT OF OBSERVATIONS
VOYAGE OF H.M.S. "CHALLENGER"
ROUND THE WORLD IN THE YEARS 1872-1876,
UNDER THE COMMAND OF
Capt. Sir G. S.
NARES, R.N., K.G.B., F.R.S., and
Capt. F. T.
BY. H. N. MOSELEY, M.A., F.R.S.
LATE FELLOW OF EXETER COLLEGE, OXFORD.
LATE LINACRE PROFESSOR OF HUMAN AND COMPARATIVE ANATOMY IN THE
UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD.
WERNER LAURIE, LTD.
COBHAM HOUSE, 24-26
BLACK FRIARS LANE,
Reproduced from original documents in his personal
Copyright © 2003 by Dr. David C. Bossard
Portrait of H. N. Moseley
Introduction ix. x.
TENERIFE. ST. THOMAS. BERMUDA.
Circumstances of the
Voyage. Tenerife. Cochineal Plantations. Excursions up the Peak.
Trade-wind Cloud. Zones of Vegetation. Sunset seen above the Clouds.
Rabbits and other Animals on the Peak. Peculiar Spider's Web. Catching
Sharks off Sombrero Island, West Indies. Appearance and Habits of
Remora. Pilot Fish. Island of St. Thomas. Calcareous Seaweeds. Sea
Urchins with Poisoned Spines. Burrowing Spider. Nest of Termites.
Pelicans edible. Sand-box Tree. Defensive Colouring of Spines
of Cacti. Beach Conglomerate. Sea-beans. Bermuda. Calcareous Sand-rock.
Vegetation. Peat. Boatswain Birds. Land Nemertine. Corals in Caves.
AZORES. MADEIRA. CAPE VERDES.
Fayal Island, Azores. Porpoises
on the Feed. Town of Horta. Peculiar Dress of the Women. Island of Pico. St. Michael's Island.
Native Ferns and Australian-introduced Trees. The Threshing Floor and
Women at the Mill. Vegetation of the Azores. Hot Springs at Furnas.
Plants Growing in the Hot Water. Caldeira des Sette Cidades. Madeira.
Grand Cural. Curious Caps worn by the Men. The Island at Sunset. St.
Vincent Island, Cape Verdes. Vegetation of the Island. Ascent of Green
Mountain. Different Causes of Variation of Vegetation with Altitude.
Structure of Basaltic Dykes. Calcareous Seaweeds on Bird Island. Habits
of Crabs. Miniature Oasis. Flying Gurnet Hooked.
Mode of Catching Bonito. Island of Fogo. Porto Praya, St. Jago Island.
of Foot in Feeding by Kites. Kingfisher and Galinis. Hauling the Seine.
Large Shark. San Domingo Valley. Monkeys. Remarkable Freshwater
Crustacean, Limestone Band in the Cliff of the Harbour
ST. PAUL'S ROCKS AND FERNANDO NORONHA.
St. Paul's Rocks. Equatorial
Current. Nests of Noddies. Predatory Habits of Grapsus strigosus. Fishing off the Rocks. Nests
of Boobies. Pugnacity of the
Birds. Other Inhabitants of the Rocks. Fishing for Cavalli with Salmon
Tackle. Geological Structure of the Rocks. Seaweeds growing on the
Fernando Noronha. Calcareous Sandrock containing Volcanic Intermixture.
Tree Shedding Leaves in Dry Season. Fatropha urens. Birds.
Convicts. St. Michael's Mount. Frigate Birds Nesting. Pigeons Nesting
Sea Birds. Lizards of the islands.
Harbour and Town of Bahia.
Religious Procession. Black Angels. Land Planarians. Clicking
Butterfly. Primæval Forest. Shooting Humming Birds and Toucans.
Caxoeira. Mewing Toads. Excursion to Feira St. Anna. Mule Riding.
Former Highway Robbers. Inn at Feira St. Anna and its Guests. The Fair.
Anteaters Eaten as Medicine. Vaqueiros. Tailing Cattle. Horse Dealing.
German Settler in the Country. Driving Cattle in
the Bush. Farm Slaves. Preparation of Cassava. Over-burdened Ant.
Three-toed Sloth. Slavery in Brazil.
TRISTAN DA CUNHA, INACCESSIBLE ISLAND, NIGHTINGALE ISLAND.
Settlement of the Island.
Geological Structure. Vegetation. Temperature of Fresh Water. Phylica
arborea. Rigorous Climate. Condition of the Settlers. Inaccessible
Island. Rock-hopper Penguins. Tussock Grass. Penguin Rookeries.
Peculiar Land Birds. Noddies and other Sea Birds. Southern Skuas. Wild
Swine. Change of Habits of Penguins. Nightingale Island. Vast Penguin
Rookery. Seal Caves. Rocks Worn by the
Feet of the Penguins. Mollymauks and their Nests. Derivation of
Names for Southern Animals. Dogs run Wild in a Penguin Rookery.
of Penguins and Seals. Insects, etc., of the Group. Flowering Seasons.
Beans. Relations of the Flora.
CAPE OF GOOD HOPE.
Aspect and Formation of the
Country. Simons Bay. Appearance of the Vegetation. The Road to Cape
Town. The Silver Tree. Habits of Baboons. The Rock Rabbit. Habits of
Rodent Moles. Kitchen Middens. Burial Places of Natives. Antelopes. An
Ostrich Farm. Tracks of Animals in the Sand. Great Variety of Flowering
Plants. Clawless Otter.
Land Planarians. Chameleon. Jackass Penguins. Bdellostoma. Rare
with Long Tusks. Peripatus carpensis, the Ancestor of Insects.
PRINCE EDWARD ISLANDS. THE CROZET ISLANDS.
Appearance and Formation of
Marion Island. Vegetation of the Island. Azorella selago. Limit
of Vegetation in Altitude. Relations of the Flora. Former Extension of Land in this Region.
Nesting of the
Great Albatross. Mode of Courtship. Skuas. "Johnny" Penguins. Rock
Rookeries of King Penguins. Absurd appearance of the Young Birds. Singular Modc of Incubation. Habits of
Sheath-bills. Appearance of the
Tree-trunks found in the Islands by former Voyagers.
Position of the island, its
Mountains and Fjords. Active Volcano. Christmas Harbour, Sea Elephants
and Fur Seals. Shooting Teal. The Kerguelen Cabbage. Wingless Flies and
Gnats. Vegetation at Successive Heights. Fossil Wood. Rookeries of Rock
Hopper and Macaroni Penguins. Pengums 1nhabiting a Cave. Betsy Cove.
Glaciation of the Land
Surface. Iceborne Rocks. Excavation of the Fjords. Beds of Burnt Coal.
Sea Leopard. Killing Sea Elephants. Nature of the Trunk of the Sea
Carrion Birds. The Giant Petrel. Habits of Several Burrowing Petrels.
Diving Petrel. Habits of Sheath Bills. Struggle for Existence amongst
Birds. Mode of Whaling amongst the Kelp.
Diatoms on the Sea Surface.
Macdonald Island. Whisky Bay, Heard Island. Coast-line composed of
Glaciers. Structure of the Glaciers. Terminal and Lateral Moraines.
Glacier Stream. Rocks cut by Natural Sand Blast. Lava Flow and Denuded
Crater. Scanty Vegetation. Range in Elevation of Arctic and Southern
Plants Compared. Mode of Hunting Sea Elephants. Habits of these
Animals. Sealers Inhabiting Heard Island. Birds
of the Island.
AMONGST THE SOUTHERN ICE.
First Iceberg Sighted. Typical
Forms of Southern Bergs. Preservation of Equilibrium. Wash Lines.
Caverns. Bi-tabular Bergs, How Formed. Weathering of Bergs.
Stratification of ice in Bergs. Cleavage. Scarcity of Rocks on Bergs.
Discoloured Bands in the Ice. Rev. Canon Moseley on the Motion of
Glaciers. Colouring of Bergs.
Blue Berg. Surf on the Coasts of Bergs. Scenic effects of Icebergs.
Appearance of the Pack Ice. Discolouration of Ice by Diatoms. Gales of
Wind amongst the Icebergs. Snowbow. Whales Blowing. Grampuses. Birds
amongst the Ice. Antarctic Climate in Summer.
VICTORIA. NEW SOUTH WALES.
Excursions into the Bush near
Melbourne. Opossum Snare. Tracks of the Aborigines on Tree trunks. Town
Sandhurst. The Highest Tree in the World. Aborigines on a Government
Ornithorynchus paradoxus. Leaves
Australian Trees, why Vertically Disposed. Fur-Seal in the Open Sea.
Harbour. The Blue Mountains. Extavations in the Ground caused by Rain.
Opossums by Moonlight. Fruit-eating Bats. Hunting Bandicoots. Browera
Intimate Relation of Land and Sea Animals. Geological Import of this.
in Fresh Water. Kitchen Middens. Drawings by Aborigines. Handmarks. Trigonia and Cestracion.
NEW ZEALAND. THE FRIENDLY ISLANDS. MATUKU ISLAND.
Wellington, New Zealand. The
Rata Tree. Kingfisher with Littoral Habits. Peripatus. Egg Capsules of
Land Planarians. The Vegetation of the Kermadec Islands. Red-coloured
of the Shark. Island of Eua. General Appearance of the Island of
Tongan Natives. Mode of Hairdressing. Facial Expression of the Natives.
A Pea jacket a Badge of Distinction. Town of Nukualofa. Dress of Tongan
Women. Getting Fire by Friction. Deserted Plantations. Fruit-bats
on Flowers. Herons, Tree-swifts, and other Birds. Parasitic Algæ
in Foraminifera. Matuku Island, Fiji Group. The Island an Ancient
Its Vegetation. Encircling Reef. Flocks of Lories. Periophthalmus, a
living on Land. Living Pearly Nautilus. Its Mode of Swimming. Account of the Nautilus, by Rumphius.
Position and Area of the Islands
of the Group. Kandavu Island. Grindstones for Stone Adzes. Shooting
Birds in the Woods. Terrestrial Hermit Crabs. Visit to a Barrier Reef.
Island. Excursion to Livoni. Fijian Convicts. Log Drum. Native
Kaava Drinking. Buying Stone Adzes. Excursion to Mbau Island. Structure
of the Island. Na vatani tawaki. Relics of Cannibalism. Interview with
Thackombau. Connection of Wooden Drums and Bells. Excursion up the Wai
Sugar Plantations at Viti. Freshwater Sharks. Joe the Pilot. Fijian
and Tombs. A Chief's House and his Children. A Missionary Meeting.
Modes of Painting the Body. Grand Dancing Performances. Primitive
of Music, Poetry, and the Drama. Wesleyan Missionary. Albino Native.
of Races at Levuka. Fijian Modes of Expression. Laughter.
The Ula. Particulars concerning Cannibalism.
NEW HEBRIDES CAPE YORK. TORRES STRAITS.
Api Island, New Hebrides.
Fringing Reefs. Proofs of Elevation. Coral Living Detached. Natives of
Api, their Ornaments and Weapons. Condition of Returned Labourers.
Expression of the Emotions. Raine Island. Its Geological Structure. Its
Vegetation. Nesting of Wideawakes. Gannets and Frigate Birds. Dead
Turtles. Somerset, Cape York. Nests of White Ants. Combination of Indian and Australian Features in
the Vegetation. Various Birds. Habits
of the Rifle Bird. Birds Fertilizing Plants. Camp of the Blacks. Habits
of these Natives. Curious Mode of Smoking. Food of the Blacks. They
Count higher than Three. Absolute Nudity of the Men. Coral Flats.
of Savage Weapons at Cape York. Wednesday Island, Torres Straits.
of Coral Flats. Giant Clam. Native Graves. Booby Island. A Halting
for Birds during Migration. Many Land Birds on an Almost Bare Rock.
ARU. KE. BANDA. AMBOINA. TERNATE.
Appearance of the Am Islands.
Trees Transplanted by the Waves. Masses of Drift Wood. Malay Language.
Ballasting a Guide. Management of Clothes during Rain. Black Country
Natives. Great Height of the Trees. Nests of the Metallic Starling.
Parrots and Cockatoos. Bird Winged Butterflies. Shooting Birds of
Paradise at Wanumbai. Deposit of Lime in Streams. Boat Crews from the
Ke Islands. Fungus Skin Disease. Ke
Island Dancing. Houses at Ke Dulan. Leaf Arrows. Bird caught in a
Spider's Web. Ascent of the Volcano of Banda. Algae Growing in the Hot
Steam Jets. Numerous Insects at the Summit. Alteration in Sea Level,
Marked on Living Corals. Nutmeg Plantations. Transportation of Seeds by
Fruit-Pigeons. Saluting at Amboina. Danger to the Eyes in Diving for
Corals. Raised Reefs. Myrmecodia and Hydnophytum. Moluccan Deer.
Ternate Island. Chinese and their Graves. Sale of Birds of Paradise.
Ascent of the Volcano. The Mountain Vegetation. The Terminal Cone. View from the
THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS.
Zamboanga, Mindanao Island.
Paddy Fields and Buffaloes. The Lutaos and their Pile-Dwellings.
Pile-Dwellings on Dry Land. The Ground Floor, a Late Addition to the
First Story. Wide
Distribution of Pile-Dwellings. Their Possible Origin. Dances Performed
by the Lutaos. Bamboo Jew's Harp. Lutao Canoe and Weapons. Search for
Latro. Birds' Eggs hatched in the Sea Sand. Alcyonarian Corals. Basilan
Island. Cart-wheels cut from Living Planks. Galeopithecus and Flying
Cebu Island Mode of Dredging up Euplectella. Mactan Island, Raised
Large Cerianthus. Trachytic Volcano at Camiguin Island. Temperature at
Plants can Grow in Hot Mineral Water. Manila-Hemp Plantations. Manila.
Worn over Trousers. Clothes Originally Ornamental only. Half-hatched
Eggs Eaten. Cock Fighting. Sale of Indulgences.
CHINA. NEW GUINEA.
Hong Kong. Pigeon English.
Chinese Method of Writing compared with European Methods. Development
of Chinese and Japanese Books from Rolls. Plants colonizing a Pagoda. Sights of Canton. Chinese
and English Examinations,
and their Subjects compared. The Honam Monatery. Chinese Floral
A Chinese Dinner. Dragons' bones and Teeth. Origin of Mythical Animals.
Chinese Account of the Dragon. The last Dragon seen in England. Use of
Horn as Medicine in Europe. Chinese and English Medicine compared.
Accounts of the Pigmies and of Monkeys. English Mythical Animals. The
Serpent. Owls living with Ground Squirrel in China. Off the Talaur
Driftwood off the Ambernoh River, New Guinea. Animals Inhabiting it.
Bay, Signal Fires of the Natives. Bartering at Night. Numbers of
Relative Prices of Native Property. Attempts at Thieving. Modes of
Mode of Threatening Death by Signs. Armed Boat Robbed. Villages of
History of Visits to the
Islands. Eagerness of the Natives for Iron. Trade Gear. Trading with
the Natives. Geological Structure of the Islands. Orchids and Ferns
overhanging the Sea. Fern resembling a Liverwort. Difficulties in
Collecting Words of their Language from the Natives. Their Methods of
Counting. Curious Mode of Expressing
Negation. Physical Characteristics of the Natives. Hairiness of Races
Possible Signification of Moles. Clothes, Hair Dressing and Ornaments
the Natives. Tattooing and Painting. Betel-Chewing and Food. houses,
and Canoes of the Natives. Their Implements and Weapons. Artistic Skill
of the Natives. Their Musical Instruments, Dancing and Singing. Their
Fortification of their Villages. Wooden Gods. Skulls and Hair in their
Their Religion. Disposition of the Natives. Their Fear of Goats and
Population of the Islands. Domestic Animals, Birds and other Animals at
the islands. Habits of Gar-Fish.
JAPAN. THE SANDWICH ISLANDS.
Tedious Voyage to Japan. Jinriksha
Coolies. Worship of the White Horse. Japanese Sight-Seers. Consulting
the Oracle. Japanese Pilgrims. Book Shops and Religious Shops. River
Embankments. Rice Fields. Houses of Wood and Paper. English Bed-room
Exhibited at the Exhibition. Money Boxes. Pilgrims and Priests.
Interest taken by the People in Tojins. Cold Water Cure. Painting of
the Face in China and Japan. Japanese Tattooing. Japanese Modes of
Expression. Japanese Pictures and Theatres. Barren Appearance of the
Sandwich Islands. Honolulu. Supremacy of American over Native
Productions. Principal Trees of Oahu Island. King Kalakaua. Hawaian
Burials. Visit to the Crater of Kilauea. Ponds of Fluid Lava. Mode of
Formation of Pele's
Hair. Lava Fountains and Cascades. Recent Eruptions. Hawaian Hook
Its Probable Religious Signification Hawaian Stone Club. Affinities
New Zealand and Hawaian Art. Interbreeding on Isolated Islands.
TAHITI. JUAN FERNANDEZ.
Death of Rudolph Von Willemoes
Suhm. Scientific Papers and journals left by him. Papeete. Excursion
into the Mountains. Fly-Fishing in a Mountain Stream. Uses of the Wild
Banana. Vegetation Composed mainly of Ferns. Camping at Night. Tahitian
Mountain Map. Ascent to 4,000 feet Altitude. Petrels Nesting at this
Height. Their possible Influence in Distribution of Plants. Ignorance
of the Natives concerning the Mountains. Mode of Alternation of
Generations in the Mushroom Coral. Structure of Millepora. Structure of
the Stylasteridæ. Catching Land-Crabs. Tahitian National Air.
Juan Fernandez. Preponderance of Ferns. Destruction of Trees. Gunnera
Chilensis. Conspicuous Flowers. Humming Birds of the Island. Their
Fertilization of Flowers. Smallness of the Island compared with the
Number of Endemic Forms. Endemic
CHILE. MAGELLAN'S STRAITS. FALKLAND ISLANDS. ASCENSION.
Valparaiso. The Andes not
Conspicuous. Cattle lassoed in the Streets. Excursion up the Uspallata
Pass. Leafless Mistletoe on the Leafless Cactus. An Equestrian
Hair-Cutter. Dead and disabled Animals on the Pass. Use of the Lasso in
Robbery and Flirtation. Cleverness of a Horse on a Mountain Path.
Fjords of the Western Coast of Patagonia.
Density of the Forest. An Anchor Broken. Fuegians. Wild Geese at
Island. Kitchen Middens. The Falkiand Islands. Visit to Port Darwin.
turned Gauchos. Chapinas and Tropijes. Wild Horses and their Habits.
Modes of Handling Cattle in Different Parts of the World. Goose-Bolas
of Knuckle-Bones. Flies and Gnats with Rudimentary Wings. Skeleton of
Whale. Fuegian Arrow-heads Scattered in the Islands. Habits of Jackass
Ascension Island. Land Crabs. The Hatching of Turtles' Eggs. Shooting
Flying Fish. Birds at Boatswain Bird Island.
LIFE ON THE OCEAN SURFACE AND IN THE DEEP SEA.
AND BOTANY OF THE SHIP. CONCLUSION.
Plants of the Ocean Surface.
Fauna of the Sargasso Sea. Protective Colouring of Pelagic Animals.
of Pelagic Animals. Flight of the Albatross. Flight of Flying-fish. A
Pelagic Insect. Pelagonemertes described. Phosphorescence of Pelagic
Animals. Giant Pyrosoma. Uncertainty as to Range in Depth of Pelagic
Animals. The Depth
of the Oceans and Depressions on the Earth's Surface. Deep-Sea
Vast Pressure existing in the Deep Sea. Experiment showing this made by
Buchanan. Conditions under which Life Exists in the Deep Sea. Range of
in Depth. Food of Deep-Sea Animals. Experiment on the Rate of Sinking of a Salpa. Vegetable and Animal Debris
Dredged from Great Depths. The Deep Sea, a High Road for the
Distribution of Animals. Deep-Sea Faunas and Alpine Floras Compared.
Nature of the Deep-Sea Fauna a source of Disappointment. Remarkable
Deep-Sea Ascidian. Localities specially Rich in Deep-Sea Forms.
Relations of Deep-Sea Animals to One Another. Phosphorescent Light in
the Deep Sea. Colours of Deep-Sea Animals. Cockroaches. Moths,
Mosquitoes, House-flies, Crickets, Centipedes and Rats on board the
Plants on Board the Ship. Pet Parrot, Cassowary, Ostriches, Tortoises,
Spiders, Fur-Seal, and Goat on Board. Adaptation to Sea Life. Smallness
of the Earth's Surface. Slow Rate of Travelling. Man and possibly
Protoplasm existent on the Earth alone. Necessity for Immediate
Scientific Investigation of Oceanic Islands.