About the Author
|Glenn M. Stein was born in
in Miami, Florida, but grew up on a barrier island on the East coast,
and now lives in Central Florida with his
wife and twin daughters. Having started collecting and
at age 12, Stein has specialized in medals related to polar exploration
last 21 years. He has written several articles about medal
medallic design for specialist journals, and gives public lectures and
displays related to polar history.
|Obverse side, full size
||Reverse side, full size
Medal, natural size.
Click on image for larger view.
My intention is to provide anyone who seeks it, useful information regarding the medal commemorating the 1872-76 worldwide voyage of HMS Challenger, which (in hindsight) celebrates the beginning of the modern science of oceanography. The author would be pleased to receive any additional information about the Challenger Medal, and in particular, be made aware of other existing examples of this medal. Please contact me at email@example.com.
The objects of the Expedition have been fully and faithfully carried out. We always kept
in view that to explore the conditions of the deep sea was the primary object of our mission,
and throughout the voyage we took every possible opportunity of making a deep-sea
observation. Between our departure from Sheerness on December 7th, 1872, and our arrival
at Spithead on May 24th, 1876, we traversed a distance of 68,890 nautical miles, and at intervals
as nearly uniform as possible we established 362 observing stations.
Professor Sir Charles Wyville Thomson
But the work of the Challenger Expedition had only just begun. A group of specialists, men learned in their own subjects, would spend years describing and drawing the specimens that filled storehouses and laboratories. Then, the daunting task of publishing the results fell for the most part on the shoulders of John Murray. For the authors of the Challenger Reports, they '...received nothing more than a copy of the publication and a small honorarium to cover their expenses. In further appreciation it was resolved that a Challenger medal be struck (sic). The Treasury refused to pay for it and John Murray had the medal designed and executed at his own expense and himself sent replicas to those who had shared in the expedition or in the preparation of the Report. He himself was honoured by the Royal Society when he was admitted Fellow in 1896. Official commendation by the Government was deferred until 1898, when the Queen conferred to John Murray the rank of KCB [Knight Commander, The Most Honourable Order of the Bath] in recognition of his outstanding contributions to science.' 1
Contemporary writings in the journal Nature stated the medal, '...is being presented by Dr. John Murray to the naval officers of the expedition, the contributors of memoirs to the report[s] on the scientific results of the expedition, and to members of the civilian scientific staff, as a souvenir of Challenger work.' 2 There were instances where medals were issued to individuals who fell outside this scope. One person concerned was Laurence Pullar. He had an engineering and business background, was a man of wealth, and took a broad view of public service. Pullar was also a life-long friend of Murray, and a Fellow of both the Royal Society and Royal Society of Edinburgh.
NUMISMATIC DETAILS OF THE CHALLENGER MEDAL 3
Obverse: Commemorates the voyage. In the center is a head and shoulders left-facing profile of the Roman goddess of wisdom and war, Minerva (in one of her many roles). Next to her is the image of an owl, her sacred bird (which is why wisdom is associated with owls). 4 These figures are superimosed upon a globe with lines of latitude and longitude. I know of at least one example of the medal with only the lines of longitude on the globe. 5 Partially encircling Athena and the owl is what appears to be an evergreen laurel branch; to the Greeks and Romans the laurel symbolised acquired immortality, both in battle as well as in the arts. 6 The whole is bordered by water, indicating the Expedition's round-the-world voyage. Figures from the sea include the Roman god of the sea, Neptune, who is grasping what appears to be a bottom sampler trawl in his right hand (disclosing treasures from th18752e deep). He cradles his trident in the left hand. A stylized dolphin is close by, and two mermaids support a long ribbon, which carefully conceals their charms. The ribbon bears the words: VOYAGE OF H.M.S CHALLENGER/1872-76. (Fig. 1) All images courtesy of St. Columba's Hospice, Challenger Lodge, Edinburgh.
Reverse: Commemorates work on the Challenger Reports. The central figure is a standing armored knight, throwing the gauntlet from his right hand into the sea (presumably to Neptune), whose trident appears above the waves - this being the crest of H.M.S. Challenger. The trident is partially wrapped in a long ribbon, which extends the entire circumference of the reverse. The ribbon bears the wording: REPORT ON THE SCIENTIFIC RESULTS OF THE CHALLENGER EXPEDITION 1886.95. (Fig. 2)
Size: 75 mm ( 3 inches ).
Metal: bronze (possibly also manufactured in silver, and though I have never seen an example in this metal, one example supposedly exists, and Brown states the medal
was manufactured in silver). 7
Designer and Sculptor: William S. Black (an Edinburgh artist who actively exhibited between 1881-97) and William Birnie Rhind, RSA (1853-1933/an Edinburgh sculptor). 8
How manufactured: Cast.
Manufacturer: Unknown maker in Paris.
Naming: Recipient's first name and surname are engraved on the edge at six o'clock,
in sans serif capital letters. Sometimes, only the first and middle initials are engraved.
Number Cast: Unknown.
Number Issued: The List of Recipients of the Challenger Medal., 120 medals
were issued. Below, the List reveals the totals of issued medals from Aug. 29, 1895
through Feb. 15, 1897.
' Up till Aug. 29. 
95 medal have been despatched (as per list)
4 without names (1 to Mr. Irvine Smith - Aug. 27.95)
1 " " taken to Holland by Mr.(sic) Murray
1 engraved Monteith [this is struck through]
Dec.16.1895. Jan.14 96
107 medals engraved 111 medals engraved 118 medals engraved (Feb.15/97)
1 Dr. Murray 1 Dr. Murray 1 Dr. Murray
1 Mr. Irvine Smith 1 Mr. Irvine Smith 1 Mr. Irvine Smith
11 in office 7 in office 120 '
The medal was issued from the Challenger Office, Edinburgh, in a fitted hinged
case, which has 'James Crichton & Co., 47 George St., Edinburgh' printed on the white
fabric of the inside lid. It came with a simple handwritten document noting the
recipient's name, and that it was a souvenir of Challenger work. 9 (Fig. 3) Several medals
were hand delivered by Dr. Murray, but the majority of them were sent by post.
CHALLENGER MEDAL ROLL
Assembling a complete
medal roll presents various challenges. Laurence Pullar's award is but
example, as he did not (as far as I am aware) fit the criteria for the
and yet he received a medal. Two other problems derive from the article
Nature. These writings state that Murray was presenting medals '...to
officers of the expedition, the contributors of memoirs to the
report[s] on the
scientific results of the expedition, and to members of the civilian
staff, as a souvenir of Challenger work.' Firstly, there are nine
included in Walter Crane's Challenger Expedition Reports. Portraits
Contributors, Reproduced from the Photographs Presented by Them to John Murray, etc. (1897), who do not
appear on the
List of Recipients of the Challenger Medal, and there seems no
reasons for their omissions. The second problem is whether or not
'contributors' included their assistants; perhaps in some cases the
yes, but in others no. Frederick Gordon Pearcey had one foot in each of
worlds, as he was a Domestic 3rd Class in the Royal Navy, and an
the Naturalists onboard. His shipmate, Writer Richard Wyatt, must have
significantly helped in the recording of data, and was thus rewarded
medal. One recipient was a certain 'Miss Sclater', who was possibly
Sclater's daughter, but this cannot be confirmed. I cannot find links
Expedition or subsequent scientific work among several individuals at
of the Roll, but more research and time will undoubtedly unmask their
Please note that naval ranks shown are those existing at the time of
NAVAL PERSONNEL RANK NOTES
1) ABBOTT, William J. Actg. Asst. Engr. Medal sent to HMS St. George,
Simon's Bay, Cape of Good Hope.
2) ALDRICH, Pelham First Lieutenant Medal sent to Captain Aldrich,
(1844-1930) HMS Hawke (Mediterranean
Squadron), Admiralty, London.
Medal known with document in the
NMM Collection; named "PELHAM
ALDRICH". Donated by Aldrich's
great-nephew. 10 Promoted to Comm-
ander after Expedition. Entitled to the
Arctic 1875-76 Medal (First Lieut., HMS
Alert). Commanded the Western Sledge
Party (Ellesmere Island) during the
Arctic Expedition. Captain's Good
Service Pension, November 1894. Rear
Admiral, 1898. Admiral Superintendent
of Portsmouth Dockyard, 1899-1902.
Attended the departure of the Royal
Coffin from Gosport, at the funeral of
Queen Victoria, 1 February 1901. CVO
(1902). Admiral 1907. Retired 1908.
Aldrich's journal is in the RGS archives.
3) ALLEN, Alfred J. Engineer Shown as Allan on the List. Medal sent
to a residence, but then forwarded to
4) BALFOUR, Andrew F. Sub-Lieutenant Medal sent to Commander Balfour, HMS
Penguin (Australian Station), Admiralty,
London. Balfour captained the Penguin
from 1893-95. In 1895, he made three
soundings in over 5,000 fathoms in the
Kermadec Trench, the deepest obtained
to that date.
5) BETHELL, George R. Lieutenant Medal sent to Commander Bethell,
43 Curzon Street, Mayfair, London.
Also entitled to the Egypt 1882-89
Medal/no bar and Khedive's Star 1882
(Lieut., HMS Minotaur). Later an MP
for Holderness Division, Yorkshire, for
6) BROMLEY, Arthur C.B. Lieutenant Assistant Surveyor, 3rd Cl. Medal sent
to Captain Bromley, HMS Endymion,
(Channel Squadron), Admiralty, London.
7) CAMPBELL, Lord Sub-Lieutenant Medal delivered by post. Log-Letters
George Granville from The Challenger (London, 1877).
8) CARPENTER, Alfred Lieutenant Medal sent to Commander Carpenter's
agent in Westminster, London.
Received the Albert Medal, 2nd Cl.
during the Expedition (Stanley Harbour,
Falkland Islands, 20 January 1876), and
awarded the RHS Bronze Medal for the
same incident. DSO and specially MID
for services during the annexation of
Burma, and received the thanks of the
Governement of India. Entitled to
IGS/Burma 1885-7 (Commander-in-
Charge of the Marine Survey of India,
1884-September 1889); Egypt 1882-89
Medal/no bar (Commander, in
command of the survey vessel
Myrmidon) and Khedive's Star, 1884-86.
In 1889, received a letter from the Indian
Government noting its appreciation
of his valuable services. FRMS; FZS.
9) CHANNER, Arthur Sub-Lieutenant Medal sent to Captain Channer, Light
House Department, Colombo, Ceylon.
Entitled to IGS/Burma 1885-7, when
Assistant Superintendent of the Indian
Marine Survey, and served with the
Naval Brigade (MID). Assistant Super-
intendent, First Grade, Indian Marine
Survey, May 1882 to August 1887.
10) HAVERGAL, Arthur Sub-Lieutenant Assistant Surveyor 1st Cl.
(1851 - ? ) Medal sent to Captain Havergal,
Hydrographic Department, Admiralty,
London. Specially promoted to
Lieutenant for services during the
11) HIGHAM, Robert Actg. Carpenter Medal sent to HMS Victory, Portsmouth.
12) HOWLETT, William A. Asst. Engr. Medal sent to HMS Grafton, Chatham.
13) HYNES, John Asst. Paymaster Medal sent to HMS Northampton,
14) MACLEAN, George Staff Surgeon Medal sent to Surgeon-General
Maclean, RN Hospital, Haslar, Gosport.
15) MACLEAR, John Commander Contributor to the Narrative. He was
Fiot Lee Pearse second-in-Command throughout the
(1838-1907) entire voyage, and was afterwards
promoted to Captain. Assistant
Surveyor, 2nd Class. Medal delivered
by Dr. Murray. Retired Vice-Admiral,
23 August 1897. Entitled to
Crimea/Sebastopol, Baltic, Turkish
Crimea Medals (Midshipman/HMS
Algiers), China 1857- 60/Taku Forts
1860 (Lieutenant/HMS Sphinx),
Abyssinia 1867-68 (First Lieut./HMS
Octavia). He is reputed in Dictionary
of National Biography 20th Century
and The Times' obituary to have
served as a Naval Cadet on HMS
Castor during the South African War,
1850-53, but he is not on the Medal
Roll. In addition, a photograph of
Maclear wearing his miniature
medals does not show him with
the South Africa 1834-53 Medal.
16) NARES, George Strong Captain Contributor to the Reports.
(1831-1915) (1872-74) Medal delivered by Dr. Murray.
Also entitled to the Arctic 1818-55
Medal (Mate/HMS Resolute/1852-54)
and Arctic 1875-76 Medal (Captain,
HMS Alert - Commander of the
Expedition). FRS (1875), RGS
Founder's Gold Medal (1877). Gold
Medal of the SociŽtŽ de Geographie
de Paris. KCB upon his return from
the Arctic Expedition. Vice-Admiral
on the Retired List in 1892.
17) PEARCEY, Fredk. Gordon Domestic 3rd Cl. Assistant to scientists, with duties
in the chemical laboratory.
Medal delivered by post.
Employed by the Challenger
Commission upon his return of the
Expedition. Contributor to the
Reports. Along with Writer 3rd Cl.
Richard Wyatt, one of only two other
ranks to receive the medal.
18) RICHARDS, R.R.A. Paymaster Medal delivered to Erlands, Crondall,
Hants. Unpublished journal rests in
the archives of the RGS.
19) SLOGGETT, Henry Charles Sub-Lieutenant Medal sent to Honolulu, Sandwich Islands.
(1852-1905) Later resigned his commission and went
to medical school in Edinburgh. Dr. Sloggett,
his wife and daughter, arrived in Honolulu in
1896, having come from the state of Washington.
In 1900, he helped organized the Honolulu
Microscopic Society. He was also a member of
the Medical Association of Hawaii and its president
20) SPRY, William J.J. Engineer Medal delivered to Therapia, St. Andrews
James Joseph Road, Southsea. The Cruise of HMS Challenger
( ? - 1906) (London, 1880).
21) SWIRE, Herbert Sub-Lieutenant Medal sent to Commander Swire,
(1851 - 1934) HMS Australia, Southampton.
The Voyage of the Challenger (two
volumes, limited edition; London,
22) THOMSON, Frank Tourle Captain In charge of survey. Contributor to
(1875-76) the Reports. Medal sent to Thomson
at The Palace, Hampton Court, London.
23) TIZARD, Thomas Henry Staff Cmdr. Asst. Surveyor, 1st Cl. Contributor
(1839-1924) to the Narrative and Meteorological
Observations. Medal delivered by
Dr. Murray. Probably entitled to the
Baltic Medal. CMG (Queen's Birthday,
June 3, 1899). Shown on the 1901
and 1907 Retired Lists with a CB, but
this may be in error for the CMG.
24) WYATT, Richard Writer, 3rd Cl. A Chief Petty Officer rating. Medal
delivered to 113 Powerscourt Road,
Portsmouth. Along with Domestic
3rd Cl. Fredk. G. Pearcey, one of
only two other ranks to receive the
medal. On 4 April 1873, Wyatt discovered
Schoolmaster Adam Ebbels in his hammock,
dead from apoplexy (stroke).
CIVILIAN SCIENTISTS TITLE(S) NOTES & SPECIALTIES
25) BUCHANAN, John Young Chemist & Contributor to the Reports.
(1844-1925) Physician Specific Gravity of Ocean Water.
26) MOSELEY, Henry Nottidge Naturalist Medal awarded posthumously
(1844-91) and sent to Mrs. Moseley.
Zoologist and Anthropologist.
Notes by a Naturalist on
HMS Challenger (London, 1880).
Contributor to the Narrative.
Hydroid and other Corals;
Phosphorescent Organ of Ipnops.
Royal Medal (1887); MA; FRS (1877);
27) THOMSON, Sir Director of Civilian Medal awarded posthumously and
Charles Wyville Scientific Staff sent to a Miss Dawson (presumably
(1830-82) a relative). Contributor to the Reports.
First Editor of the Reports. Introduction
of the Zoological Reports. FRS (1869).
Thomson was an important proponent
for ocean research in the 1860s, which
ultimately led to the Challenger
Expedition. He was the Chief Scientist
for the dredging voyages of HMS
Porcupine and Lightning, and authored
The Depths of the Sea (1873), which
summarized the findings of these
voyages and presented the case for a
global oceanographic voyage.
28) WILD, John James Artist & Secretary At Anchor: A Narrative of
(1828-1900) Experiences Afloat and Ashore
During the Voyage of H.M.S.
Challenger from 1872 to 1876.
(London, 1878). Thalasa, an Essay
on the Depth, Temperature, and
Currents of the Ocean (London, 1877).
Contributor to the Reports.
A Swiss national.
29) WILLEMOES-SUHM, Naturalist Medal awarded posthumously and
Dr. Rudolf von sent to his mother. Marine Biologist.
(1847-75) Died at sea of erysipelas, aged 28,
13 September 1875, on passage to
Tahiti, and buried at sea. A memorial
tablet given to the family by Thomson,
Murray, Buchanan, Moseley and Wild,
now rests at the family burial place in
Bad Segeberg (about 30 miles south of
a conscious decision to invite the world's premier specialists to
conduct the investigations
and write the various reports. This was done at the vigorous insistence
J.J. Thomson, who experienced considerable pressure to give a
role to British scientists.
CONTRIBUTORS SPECIALTIES NOTES
TO THE REPORTS AND/OR POSITIONS
30) AGASSIZ, Alexander Echinoidea. Marine Zoologist and
(1835-1910) Oceanographer. FRS (1891).
Agassiz performed extensive explor-
ations in the U.S. littoral areas, prior to
the Challenger Expedition. He was an
advisor and valuable assistant to
Thomson immediately following the
Expedition, and participated in cataloging
of the specimens and forming the initial
plans for the Challenger Reports.
31) ALLMAN, George James Hydroida. Marine Zoologist. Royal
(1812-98) Medal (1873); Brisbane Gold
Gold Medal (1877); Conning-
ham Gold Medal (1878); The
Linnean Medal (1896). MD;
LLD; FRCSI; FRS (1854);
FRSE; MRIA; CMZS.
32) BEDDARD, Frank Evers Isopoda. Member of Editorial Staff.
(1858-1925) Naturalist to the Challenger
(1882-84). MA; DSc; FRS
(1892); Prosector of the
Zoological Society (1884-
1915); FRSE; FZS.
33) BERGH, Rudolph Nudibranchiata; Invertebrate Zoologist. MD.
34) BRADY, George Copepoda; Ostracoda. MD; FRS (1882); FLS; FGS.
35) BROOK, George Antipatharia. Medal awarded posthumously
(1857-93) and sent to his wife. FLS; FRSE.
36) BROOKS, William Keith Stomatopoda. American Zoologist known
(1848-1908) for his research into the
anatomy and embryology
of marine animals. Elected
a Member of the National
Academy of Sciences in 1884.
37) BUCHAN, Alexander Atmospheric and Meteorologist. Medal known
(1829-1907) Oceanic Circulation. with document, held at St.
Challenger Lodge, Edinburgh.
Secretary of the Scottish
Meteorological Society in
Edinburgh. MA; LLD.
38) BUSK, George Polyzoa. Medal known. Named
(1807-86) "GEORGE BUSK", and
Ex-Surgeon, Royal Navy.
and Palaeontologist. RS
Royal Medal (1871); GS
Wollaston Medal and Lyell
Medal. X-Club Member. 11
FRS (1850); FGS. Busk appears
in the group photograph of
the Royal Society's scientific
party onboard the Challenger
39) CARPENTER, Philip Herbert Comatulae and Medal awarded posthumously
(1852-91) Stalked Crinoids. and sent to his wife.
Crinoidologist (Zoologist &
Palaeontologist). FRS (1885); FLS.
Son of William Benjamin Carpenter
(1813-85), a physiologist who contributed
to the Reports, but is oddly absent from
Challenger Medal List.
40) CHUMLEY, James Secretary to the Acknowledged in the
Director & Editor. Challenger Reports for
41) COMBER, Thomas Contributor to
42) CREAK, Ettrick W. Magnetical Results. Medal sent to Staff Commander
(1835-1920) Creak, Hydrographic Department,
Admiralty, London. Medal exists
to 'E.W. CREAK'. Promoted to
Second Master, 9 December
1858. Captain, RN, in 1901,
and Director of Compasses
in the RN's Hydrographer's
Dept. Instructions for the
set of magnetic instrucments
used by the 1901-04 British
National Antarctic Expedi-
tion were supplied by Creak.
FRS (1885); KCB (1901).
43) CUNNINGHAM, Daniel John Marsupialia. MD; FRS (1891); FRSE.
44) CUNNINGHAM, Contributor to Posted to the Royal College of
Joseph Thomas the Narrative. Surgeons, London.
45) DENDY, Arthur Monaxonida. Zoologist. BSc; FRS (1908);
46) DITTMAR, William Composition of Chemist. FRS (1882); FRSE
(1833-92) (Wilhelm) Ocean Water. (1863); Fellow, Institute
of Chemistry; Chemical
Society of London' s
Graham Medal; Hon. LLD,
47) FINSCH, Friedrich Birds of Tongatabu Naturalist. The Finsch
Hermann Otto and the Fiji Islands. Crater on the Moon is
(1839-1917) named in his honor.
48) FORBES, William A. Anatomy of Tubinares; FLS; FGS; MBOU.
Birds of Cape York, &c. Posted to Mrs. Forbes.
49) FULTON, Thomas Member of the MD (1884); FRSE.
Alexander Wemyss Editorial Staff.
50) GIBSON, John Analysis of Manganese
51) GRAFF, Ludwig Von Myzotomida. Zoologist.
52) G†NTHER, Albert Shore Fish; Pelagic MA; MD; PhD; FLS;
Charles Lewis Gotthilf Fish; Deep-sea Fish. FRS (1867). Royal Achive
(1830-1914) Winner (RS, 1878).
53) HAECKEL, Ernst Radiolaria; Deep-sea Biologist & Philosopher.
(1834-1919) Medusae; Deep-sea MD; PhD.; Hon. FRSE.
54) HADDON, Alfred Cort Polyplacophora. Zoologist & Anthropologist.
(1855-1940) Regarded as one of modern
British anthropology. FRS
55) HARMER, Sidney Frederic Cephalodiscus. Zoologist; FRS (1898).
56) HEMSLEY, William Botting Botany of the Expedition. Botanist and Taxonomist.
(1843-1924) FRS (1889).
57) HENDERSON, Anomura.
58) HERDMAN, William Abbott Member of Editorial Marine Zoologist and
(1858-1924) Staff. Tunicata. Oceanographer. President
of the Liverpool Geological
Society (1898-1900), being
awarded the Society's Silver
Medal (1922). Knighted (1922).
DSc; FRS (1892); FLS; FRSE.
59) HERTWIG, Richard Actiniaria. Zoologist. Knighted (1910).
Karl Wilhelm Theodor von
60) HOEK, Paulus P.C. Cirripedia; Pycnogonida. Marine Zoologist. Member,
(1845-1914) Royal Academy of Sciences
61) HORSLEY, Reginald Ernest Member of Editorial Staff.
62) HOYLE, William Evans Member of Editorial Malacologist. MA (Oxon.);
(1855-1926) Staff. Cephalopoda. MRCS; FRSE.
63) HUBRECHT, A.A.W. Nemertea. Zoologist. LLD; CMZS.
64) HUXLEY, Thomas Henry Spirula. Medal awarded posthumously
(1825-95) and sent to his wife. FRS (1851);
Royal Medal (1852); President of
the Royal Society (1883-85). X Club
member.11 Known as 'Darwin's Bulldog'.
65) K…LLIKER, Rudoph Pennatulida. FRS (1860); Copley Medal
Albert Von (1897); FMRS; Hon. FRSE.
66) LANKESTER, Edwin Ray Invertebrate Medal sent to the Zoology Laboratory,
(1847-1929) Zoologist University of Oxford. A disciple of
Huxley, Lankester's father (Edwin) was
a medical doctor and friend of Huxley's.
Director of London's Natural History
Museum from 1898-1907). FRS (1875).
67) LENDENFELD, Robert von Phosphorescent Spongiologist and
(1858-1913) Organs of Fish. Cnidariologist.
68) LƒOPOLD, Alexandre Caecidae. Malacologist.
Guillaume, Marquis de Folin
69) LINSTOW, Otto Von Entozoa. Helminthologist. MD.
70) LYMAN III, Theodore Ophiuroidea. Naturalist. Served in the
(1833-97) American Civil War as a
Aide-de-Camp on Gen.
George G. Meade's staff.
71) McINTOSH (M'Intosh), William Annelida; Botanist and Marine
Carmichael Cephalodiscus; Zoologist. Professor
(1838-1931) Phoronis. of Natural History,
University of St. Andrews
(1882-1917). MB; LLD;
72) MILL, Hugh Robert Contributor to Geographer and for ten
(1861-1950) the Narrative. years Librarian at the RGS.
73) MILNE-EDWARDS, Alphonse Ornithologist and Medal sent to the Natural
(1835-1900) Carcinologist History Museum, Paris.
74) MURRAY, George Robt. Milne Cryptogamic Published An Introduction to
(1858-1911) Botanist the Study of Seaweeds (1895).
Posted to the British Museum,
75) PARKER, William Kitchen Development of the Marine Zoologist and
(1823-90) Green Turtle. Naturalist. FRS (1865);
Royal Medal (1866).
76) PELSENEER, Paul Pteropoda; Anatomy of Chemistry Teacher and
(1863-1945) Mollusca; Spirula. Amateur Malacologist.
77) PIGOTT, T. Digby Ornithology. Medal known. Named
(1840-1927) "T. DIGBY PIGOTT".
Ornithologist. CB (1890);
78) POLƒJAEFF, Nicolai Calcarea; Keratosa. Spongiologist. MA.
79) QUELCH, John Joseph Reef Corals. Zoologist. BSc (Lond.).
(1854 - ? )
80) RENARD, Alphonse-Franois Deep-sea Deposits; Geologist and
(1842-1903) Petrology of St. Paul's Petrographer. Bigsby
Rocks. Medal (London Geological
81) RIDLEY, Stuart Oliver Monaxonida. Medal known.
(1853-1935) Named 'S.O. RIDLEY'.
Spongiologist. MA; FLS.
82) SALVADORI PALEOTTI, Birds of Ternate, Ornithologist. Last of the
Count Adelaro Tommaso Amboyna, &c. original Honorary
(1835-1923) Fellows of the AOU.
83) SALVIN, Osbert Steganopodes; Ornithologist. The Godman-
(1835-98) Impennes; Salvin Medal of The British
Procellariidae. Ornithologists' Union, is
named after him.
84) SARS, Georg Ossian Schizopoda; Cumacea; Marine Biologist.
85) SAUNDERS, Howard Laridae. Ornithologist. FZS; FLS.
86) SCHULZE, Franz Eilhard Hexactinellida. Zoologist.
87) SCLATER, Philip Lutley Birds of the Admiralty Ornithologist. FRS (1861);
(1829-1913) Islands, &c. FLS; Co-founder of The
Society for the Preservation
of Wild Fauna of the Empire
88) SELENKA, Emil Gephyrea. Marine Zoologist.
89) SLADEN, W. Percy Asteroidea. Marine Zoologist.
(1849-1900) FZS; FLS; FGS.
90) SMITH, Edgar Albert Lamellibranchiata; Malacologist. At the
(1847-1916) Heteropoda. British Museum. FZS.
91) SOLLAS, William Johnson Tetractinellida. Geologist. Other scientific
(1849-1936) interests included zoological
and in his later years,
became a leading authority
in the latter. MA; DSc; LLD;
92) STEBBING, Thomas Amphipoda. Cleric and Gentleman-
Roscoe Rede Naturalist. MA; FRS (1896).
93) STUDER, Theophil Alcyonaria. Zoologist. MD and PhD.
94) TAIT, Peter Guthrie Pressure Errors of the Physicist and Mathematician.
(1831-1901) Thermometers; Physical FRSE; Royal Society's Royal
Properties of Water. Medal (1886); Hon. Fellow of
Edinburgh Maths Society.
95) THƒEL, Hjalmar Holothurioidea. Zoologist.
96) THISELTON-DYER, Systematic Medal sent to the Royal Gardens, Kew.
Dr. William Turner Botanist Director of Kew (1885-1905). FRS (1880);
(1843-1928) KCMG; CIE. He was Sir Joseph Dalton
97) THOMSON, Sir John Arthur Translator of Naturalist. Knighted (1930).
(1861-1933) Zoological Reports.
98) TURNER, Sir William Cetacea; Pinnipedia; Anatomist. MB; LLD;
(1832-1916) Human Skeletons. FRS (1877); FRSSL&E.
99) WATERS, Arthur William Polyzoa. Zoologist. FLS; FGS.
( ? - 1930)
100) WATSON, Morrison Anatomy of the Anatomist. MD; FRS (1884);
(1846-85) Spheniscidae. FRSE.
101) WATSON, Rev. Robert Boog Gasteropoda. Medal known. Chaplain,
(1823-1910) Royal Army; Zoologist.
LLD; FLS; FGS; FRSE.
102) WRIGHT, Edward Perceval Alcyonaria. Marine Zoologist. MA;
(1834-1910) MD; Sec. MRIA.
OTHER RECIPIENTS TITLES, SPECIALTIES NOTES
103) ANDERSON, W.S. ?
104) BLACK, William S. Edinburgh Artist Designer of the Challenger Medal.
105) DICKSON, Edinburgh hydrographer Friend of Sir John Murray.
106) FOSTER, Michael Physiologist FRS (1872). KCB (1899). From 1881-1903,
(1836-1907) one of the secretaries of the Royal Society.
107) GOSCHEN, Rt. Hon. Member of Parliament First Lord of the Admiralty (1871-74 and
George Joachim 1895-1900). Chancellor of the Exchequer
(1831-1907) (1886-1892). The latter position may be
the reason he was issued a medal. Goschen
may have assisted with funds to publish the
108) IRVINE, Robert Chemist FRSE. Co-authored papers in the Proceedings
(1839-1902) of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Among others,
he was one of the instigators of the Scottish Marine
109) MONTEITH, Dr. James ? Medal List states: 'handed to Mrs. Monteith,
per Lily Murray August 27, 1895'.
110) MURRAY, Mrs. ? Acknowledged in the Challenger Reports for her
assistance. Evidently not Sir John Murray's wife.
111) NANSEN, Fridtjof Polar Explorer Presented personally by Dr. Murray on
(1861-1930) 15 February 1897. The medal was doubtlessly
given in recognition of the oceanographic
work carried out by Nansen during the Fram
112) PULLAR, Laurence Financer (?) Medal known. Named
(1838-1926) 'LAURENCE PULLAR'. FRSE
(1903) and FRGS; LLD, University
of Edinburgh (1926) in recognition
of his generosity in the promotion
of scientific research. Pullar was a
life-long friend of Sir John Murray,
and this association drew him into
his interest in scientific research.
With Pullar's financial aid, a steam
yacht was built and equipped for
oceanographical work near the
shores of Scottish sea-lochs, which
enabled Murray to carry on these
investigations for several years.
This is but one example of Pullar's
financial assistance toward the
advancement of science. It is
claimed in some writings that
Murray did not tolerate the red tape
of government, and when the
Treasury became stubborn, he
spent his own money to bring out
volumes of the Report.12 It would
seem possible that Pullar also put
money toward the publishing, and
perhaps as a result of these
financial contributions, was given
a Challenger Medal by Murray. To
date, however, the author has not
uncovered any direct link between
Pullar, the Challenger Expedition
or the Reports.
113) RICHARDS, George Henry Rear Admiral FRS (1866); CB (Civil/1871); Knighted
(1820-96) (1877); KCB (1886); Arctic 1818-55 Medal
Richards had an extensive background
as a surveying officer, and in 1864,
was appointed Hydrographer of the Navy.
He retired from the RN in January 1874,
and in December of that year, served on
a committee to plan the Arctic Expedition
of 1875. Richards appears in the group
photograph of the Royal Society's scientific
party onboard the Challenger (December 1872).
114) THE ROYAL SOCIETY Sent to Burlington House, London.
115) SCOTT, A.R. ? Hand delivered to recipient at the Challenger Office.
Acknowledged in the Challenger Reports for his
116) SCLATER, Miss ? Possibly the daughter of Philip Lutley Sclater.
Acknowledged in the Challenger Reports for
117) SMITH, Irvine ? Issued unengraved.
118) TURBYNE, Alexander Merchant Captain In the Reports, Turbyne is described
( ? - 1905) as 'being in charge of the Marine
Biological Station at Millport' and
having been for many years
'Captain of Dr. Murray's steam
Yacht 'Medusa' '. The Marine
Biological Station at Millport was
established on the Isle of Cumbrae
in the Firth of Clyde, in the spring
of 1885. The Report relates that
Turbyne 'worked for over 13 years
under Dr. Murray's instructions
(including 10 years consecutively)',
conducting practical investigations
'while matters strictly scientific
were undertaken and prepared for
press by men with a scientific
training.' The above would explain
the award of the Challenger Medal.
At some point, Turbyne live aboard
The Ark, a lighter converted into a
floating laboratory by Murray. The
Ark marked the establishment of the
Marine Station at Millport, the oldest
in Scotland. Turbyne evidently went
to work for the Fisheries Department
of Cape Colony in 1898, and died as
a result of a gun accident in East
London, South Africa, on 15 July 1905.
119) WEIR, Mrs. ? Sent 'C/O James Murray, Supt.
Can. Pac. Rl. [Canadain Pacific
Railroad], Winnipeg, Manitoba'.
Acknowledged in the Challenger
Reports for her assistance.
120) One unengraved medal. Taken to Holland by Dr. Murray.
Below are individuals who do not appear on the List of Recipients of the Challenger Medal,
but who were evidently in every way entitled to the award, whether through participation in
the voyage or having contributed to the Reports. Though it is possible that medals were not issued
to some of these men due to their deaths, Busk, Carpenter and Huxley are a few examples of
posthumously awarded medals. Perhaps some families could not be traced? As for the naval
officers/warrant officers, excepting Commander Lloyd, it is possible that the other RN men had left
the Service and could not be traced. But this again does not offer a certain answer to the question
of why these men do not appear on the List.
ROYAL NAVY RANKS NOTES
1) COX, Richard Boatswain In charge of stores.
2) CROSBIE, Alexander Staff Surgeon
3) FERGUSON, James H. Chief Engineer In charge of engines.
4) HARSTON, Henry C.E. Sub-Lieutenant
5) LLOYD, Edward W. Sub-Lieutenant Retired Commander on
Sept. 15, 1899. Emergency
List, 1901. Cmdr., Tyneside
Division, RNVR, April 1, 1905.
In charge of Ordnance Dept.
of Messrs. Armstrong,
Witworth & Co., Elswick. CB
(Civil) on the coronation of
King George V, June 19, 1911.
6) MARCOM, Alfred Asst. Surgeon
7) OLDHAM, Cecil F. Sub-Lieutenant
8) WESTFORD, Fredk. W. Carpenter
CIVILIAN SCIENTISTS SPECIALTIES NOTES
9) BATE, Charles Spence Macrura. Invertebrate Zoologist
(1819-89) and practicing Dentist.
Licentiate Royal College of
Surgeons; President, Odonto-
logical Society (1885).FRS
10) BRADY, Henry Bowman Foraminifera. FRS (1874); FLS; FGS.
11) CARPENTER, Orbitolites. Physiologist who
William Benjamin published extensively in
(1813-85) fields as far apart as mental
marine biology and religion.
Lyell Medal (1883). CB; MD;
LLD; FRS (1844); FGS. Father
of Philip Herbert Carpenter.
12) CASTRACANE degli Diatomaceae. Biologist. He was one of
Antelminelli, the first to introduce micro-
Conte Francesco photography into the study
(1817-99) of biology.
13) DAVIDSON, Thomas Brachiopoda. Palaeontologist. FRS
(1817-85) (1857)-Royal Medal (1870);
(1865); Honorary degree
by the University of St.
Andrews (1882); FLS;
14) GARROD, Alfred Henry Anatomy of Carpophaga. Vertebrate Zoologist.
(1846-79) FRS (1876)
15) HAY, Arthur Birds of the Philippines. The Ornithological Works
(9th Marquis of Tweeddale) of Arthur, Ninth Marquis
(1824-78) of Tweeddale (1881). Served
as a soldier in India and the
Crimea. President of the
Zoological Society of
London. FRS (1871).
16) MIERS, Edward John Brachyura. Curator of the Natural
(1851-1930) History Museum in
17) WHITE, Francis Buchanan Pelagic Hemiptera. Entomologist. MD; FLS.
Summary of Sir John Murray's Titles & Awards, Etc.
Note: Murray is not shown on the List as receiving a medal. This may well be an
indication of the gentleman's modesty, as he evidently did not have a medal
engraved for himself. Still, the total number of medals cast is unknown, so
he more than likely kept an unnamed specimen for himself.
MURRAY, Sir John Naturalist Considered the founder
(1841-1914) of modern oceanography.
Seven of the 50 volumes of the
Challenger Reports were written
largely or entirely by Murray. He
was also the Editor, contributor
to the Narrative and wrote the
Summary of Results. Deep-Sea
Deposits. FRS (1896); FRSE.
Cuvier Prize & Medal (Institute of
France/1894); Humbodt Medal
(Berlin Society of Geography/1895);
Royal Medal (RS/1895); Founders
Medal (RGS/1895); Neill Medal (RSE/
1880); Makdougall-Brisbane Medal
(RSE/1886); Order of Pour le MŽrite
for Arts & Sciences (Prussia/1898);
Cullum Medal (AGS/1899); Clarke
Memorial Medal (RSNSW/1901);
LŸtke Medal (IRSG/1904); Livingstone
Medal (RSGS/1910); Grand Cross of
the Royal Order of St. Olav (Norway/
1910); Helen Culver Medal (GSC/1911);
Vega Medal (SAGS/1912); Agassiz
Gold Medal (Academy of Sciences,
Murray created the Alexander Agassiz
Medal in honor of his friend. The medal
is awarded for an original contribution
in the science of oceanography.
KCB (1898). In 1886, he put forth a plan
to send two ships on a major Antarctic
expedition. Although it was never
put into action, eight years later, the
RGS used his ideas to promote the
British National Antarctic Expedition.
Actg. - Acting
AOU - American Ornithologists' Union
Asst. - Assistant
CB - Companion of the Order of the Bath
CIE - Companion of the Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire
Cmdr. - Commander
CMZS - Charter Member Zoological Society (?)
CVO - Commander Victorian Order
DSO - Distinguished Service Order
Engr. - Engineer
FGS - Fellow of the Geological Society
FLS - Fellow of the Linnean Society
FRCSI - Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland
FRGS - Fellow Royal Geographical Society
FRMS - Fellow of the Royal Meteorlogical Society
FRS - Fellow of the Royal Society
FRSE - Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh
FRSSL&E - Fellow of the Royal Societies of London & Edinburgh
FZS - Fellow of the Zoological Society of London
GSC - Geographic Society of Chicago
Hon. - Honorary
IGS - India General Service Medal 1854-95
IRGS - Imperial Russian Geographical Society
KCB - Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath
KCMG- Knight Commander of the Most Distinguished Order of St. Michael and St. George
LLD - Legum Doctor (Doctor of Law)
MB - Bachelor of Medicine
MID - Mentioned in Despatches
MRCS- Member of the Royal College of Surgeons
MRIA - Member Royal Irish Academy
RHS - Royal Humane Society
RN - Royal Navy
RNVR - Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve
RS - Royal Society (London)
RSA - Royal Society of Arts
RSE - Royal Society of Edinburgh
RSGS - The Royal Scottish Geographical Society
RSNSW - The Royal Society of New South Wales
SAGS - Swedish Anthropological & Geographical Society
VPPS - Vice President of the Palaeontographical Society
Ms. Clara Anderson
Dr. David C. Bossard
Dr. David M. Damkaer
Mr. Roy L. Davids
Dr. Margaret Deacon
Ms. Judith Farrington
Mr. Daniel Fearon
Dix Noonan Webb (DNW)
Mr. Mark Sikes
Mr. John I. Simper
Ms. Barbara Tomlinson
Mr. Martin Wagner
Mr. Bryan Williamson
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1 Boog-Watson, 1967.
2 Nature, 1895.
5 P. Rodger, Appeals Officer, March 27, 1995.
6 Bourner, 2000.
7 Linklater, 1972 and Brown, 1987.
8 C. J. Burnett, Curator of Fine Art and Medals, 12 January 1995, and Eimer, 1987.
9 Rodger, op.cit. and B. Tomlinson, Curator, Antiquities, Aug. 5, 1998.
10 Tomlinson, ibid.
11 The X Club was a dinner club formed in 1864 by nine eminent scientists, who had long been intimate friends, so
they would not drift apart due to their various duties, and in order to further the cause of science. The Club
held monthly meetings from October to June, and was extremely active for two decades, but this activity gradually
lessened. The regular communication helped X Club members to gather their efforts on behalf of science against
what they felt to be the obstructionist activities and ideas of conservative scientists, certain theologians, and non-
scientific society figures. Members at the birth of the X Club were: George Busk (1807- 86), Joseph D. Hooker (1817-
1911), Herbert Spencer (1820-1923), John Tyndall (1820-93), Edward Frankland (1825-99), Thomas Henry Huxley (1825-
95), Thomas Archer Hirst (1830-92) and John Lubbock (1834-1913). William Spottiswoode (1825-83) became the ninth
member of the Club at its second meeting. Much of the discussion at the meetings focused on the affairs of the
Royal Society. By 1864, all were Fellows of the Royal Society, except Spencer who, due to principle and possible
resentment, flatly refused to agree to his being nominated. The X Club exerted important influence in the Royal
Society, in the British Association, in various other scholarly societies, in the Royal Institution, and in the publishing
of scientific works.
12 Linklater, 1972.
13 Shipley, Sir Arthur E. (Zoologist 1861-1927)