The Challenger Medal Roll (1895)
(Updated Feb. 5, 2006)

by Glenn M. Stein  
copyright © 2006

About the Author
Glenn M. Stein was born in 1962 in Miami, Florida, but grew up on a barrier island on the East coast, and now lives in Central Florida with his wife and twin daughters.  Having started collecting and researching medals at age 12, Stein has specialized in medals related to polar exploration for the last 21 years.  He has written several articles about medal recipients and medallic design for specialist journals, and gives public lectures and creates displays related to polar history.


Obverse Reverse
Obverse side, full size
Reverse side, full size
The Challenger Medal, natural size.
Click on image for larger view.






My intention is to provide anyone who seeks it, useful information regarding the medal commemorating the 1872-76 worldwide voyage of HMS Challenger, which (in hindsight) celebrates the beginning of the modern science of oceanography.  The author would be pleased to receive any additional information about the Challenger Medal, and in particular, be made aware of other existing examples of this medal.  Please contact me at







                  The objects of the Expedition have been fully and faithfully carried out.  We always kept

                  in view that to explore the conditions of the deep sea was the primary object of our mission,

                  and throughout the voyage we took every possible opportunity of making a deep-sea

                  observation.  Between our departure from Sheerness on December 7th, 1872, and our arrival

                  at Spithead on May 24th, 1876, we traversed a distance of 68,890 nautical miles, and at intervals

                  as nearly uniform as possible we established 362 observing stations.



                                                                                                     Professor Sir Charles Wyville Thomson




But the work of the Challenger Expedition had only just begun.  A group of specialists, men learned in their own subjects, would spend years describing and drawing the specimens that filled storehouses and laboratories.  Then, the daunting task of publishing the results fell for the most part on the shoulders of John Murray.  For the authors of the Challenger Reports, they '...received nothing more than a copy of the publication and a small honorarium to cover their expenses.  In further appreciation it was resolved that a Challenger medal be struck (sic).  The Treasury refused to pay for it and John Murray had the medal designed and executed at his own expense and himself sent replicas to those who had shared in the expedition or in the preparation of the Report.  He himself was honoured by the Royal Society when he was admitted Fellow in 1896.  Official commendation by the Government was deferred until 1898, when the Queen conferred to John Murray the rank of KCB [Knight Commander, The Most Honourable Order of the Bath] in recognition of his outstanding contributions to science.' 1


Contemporary writings in the journal Nature stated the medal, ' being presented by Dr. John Murray to the naval officers of the expedition, the contributors of memoirs to the report[s] on the scientific results of the expedition, and to members of the civilian scientific staff, as a souvenir of Challenger work.' 2  There were instances where medals were issued to individuals who fell outside this scope.  One person concerned was Laurence Pullar.  He had an engineering and business background, was a man of wealth, and took a broad view of public service.  Pullar was also a life-long friend of Murray, and a Fellow of both the Royal Society and Royal Society of Edinburgh. 






Obverse:  Commemorates the voyage.  In the center is a head and shoulders left-facing profile of the Roman goddess of wisdom and war, Minerva (in one of her many roles).  Next to her is the image of an owl, her sacred bird (which is why wisdom is associated with owls). 4  These figures are superimosed upon a globe with lines of latitude and longitude.  I know of at least one example of the medal with only the lines of longitude on the globe. 5  Partially encircling Athena and the owl is what appears to be an evergreen laurel branch; to the Greeks and Romans the laurel symbolised acquired immortality, both in battle as well as in the arts. 6  The whole is bordered by water, indicating the Expedition's round-the-world voyage.  Figures from the sea include the Roman god of the sea, Neptune, who is grasping what appears to be a bottom sampler trawl in his right hand (disclosing treasures from th18752e deep).  He cradles his trident in the left hand.  A stylized dolphin is close by, and two mermaids support a long ribbon, which carefully conceals their charms.  The ribbon bears the words:  VOYAGE OF H.M.S CHALLENGER/1872-76.  (Fig. 1)  All images courtesy of St. Columba's Hospice, Challenger Lodge, Edinburgh.



Reverse:  Commemorates work on the Challenger Reports.  The central figure is a standing armored knight, throwing the gauntlet from his right hand into the sea (presumably to Neptune), whose trident appears above the waves - this being the crest of H.M.S. Challenger.  The trident is partially wrapped in a long ribbon, which extends the entire circumference of the reverse.  The ribbon bears the wording:  REPORT ON THE SCIENTIFIC RESULTS OF THE CHALLENGER EXPEDITION 1886.95.  (Fig. 2)



Size:  75 mm ( 3 inches ).


Metal:  bronze (possibly also manufactured in silver, and though I have never seen                                                                        an example in this metal, one example supposedly exists, and Brown states the medal

was manufactured in silver). 7


Designer and Sculptor:  William S. Black (an Edinburgh artist who actively exhibited                                                                 between 1881-97) and William Birnie Rhind, RSA (1853-1933/an Edinburgh sculptor). 8


How manufactured:  Cast.


Manufacturer:  Unknown maker in Paris.


Naming:  Recipient's first name and surname are engraved on the edge at six o'clock, 

in sans serif capital letters.  Sometimes, only the first and middle initials are engraved.                                                


Number Cast:  Unknown.


Number Issued:  The List of Recipients of the Challenger Medal., 120 medals

were issued.  Below, the List reveals the totals of issued medals from Aug. 29, 1895

through Feb. 15, 1897. 


' Up till Aug. 29. [1895]


                   95 medal have been despatched (as per list)

                     4 without names (1 to Mr. Irvine Smith - Aug. 27.95)

                     1      "         "      taken to Holland by Mr.(sic) Murray

                     1 engraved Monteith [this is struck through]



Dec.16.1895.                                                    Jan.14 96


      107 medals engraved                                       111 medals engraved               118 medals engraved (Feb.15/97)

         1 Dr. Murray                                                      1 Dr. Murray                              1 Dr. Murray

         1 Mr. Irvine Smith                                             1 Mr. Irvine Smith                      1 Mr. Irvine Smith

       11 in office                                                          7 in office                               120 '

     120                                                                     120



The medal was issued from the Challenger Office, Edinburgh, in a fitted hinged

case, which has 'James Crichton & Co., 47 George St., Edinburgh' printed on the white

fabric of the inside lid.  It came with a simple handwritten document noting the

recipient's name, and that it was a souvenir of Challenger work. 9  (Fig. 3)  Several medals

were hand delivered by Dr. Murray, but the majority of them were sent by post.







Assembling a complete medal roll presents various challenges. Laurence Pullar's award is but one example, as he did not (as far as I am aware) fit the criteria for the award, and yet he received a medal. Two other problems derive from the article in Nature. These writings state that Murray was presenting medals ' the naval officers of the expedition, the contributors of memoirs to the report[s] on the scientific results of the expedition, and to members of the civilian scientific staff, as a souvenir of Challenger work.' Firstly, there are nine individuals included in Walter Crane's Challenger Expedition Reports. Portraits of the Contributors, Reproduced from the Photographs Presented by Them to John Murray, etc. (1897), who do not appear on the List of Recipients of the Challenger Medal, and there seems no apparent reasons for their omissions. The second problem is whether or not 'contributors' included their assistants; perhaps in some cases the answer was yes, but in others no. Frederick Gordon Pearcey had one foot in each of the two worlds, as he was a Domestic 3rd Class in the Royal Navy, and an Assistant to the Naturalists onboard. His shipmate, Writer Richard Wyatt, must have significantly helped in the recording of data, and was thus rewarded with the medal. One recipient was a certain 'Miss Sclater', who was possibly Philip L. Sclater's daughter, but this cannot be confirmed. I cannot find links with the Expedition or subsequent scientific work among several individuals at the end of the Roll, but more research and time will undoubtedly unmask their roles. Please note that naval ranks shown are those existing at the time of the Expedition.






NAVAL PERSONNEL             RANK                NOTES




   1)  ABBOTT, William J.              Actg. Asst. Engr.  Medal sent to HMS St. George,

                                                                                 Simon's Bay, Cape of Good Hope.      


   2)  ALDRICH, Pelham                 First Lieutenant   Medal sent to Captain Aldrich, 

       (1844-1930)                                                         HMS Hawke (Mediterranean

                                                                                 Squadron), Admiralty, London.

                                                                                 Medal known with document in the

                                                                                 NMM Collection; named "PELHAM  

                                                                                 ALDRICH".  Donated by Aldrich's

                                                                                 great-nephew. 10  Promoted to Comm-

                                                                                 ander after Expedition.  Entitled to the

                                                                                 Arctic 1875-76 Medal (First Lieut., HMS

                                                                                 Alert).  Commanded the Western Sledge

                                                                                 Party (Ellesmere Island) during the

                                                                                 Arctic Expedition.  Captain's Good

                                                                                 Service Pension, November 1894.  Rear

                                                                                 Admiral, 1898.  Admiral Superintendent

                                                                                 of Portsmouth Dockyard, 1899-1902.

                                                                                 Attended the departure of the Royal

                                                                                 Coffin from Gosport, at the funeral of

                                                                                 Queen Victoria, 1 February 1901. CVO

                                                                                 (1902).  Admiral 1907.  Retired 1908. 

                                                                                 Aldrich's journal is in the RGS archives.


   3) ALLEN, Alfred J.                     Engineer             Shown as Allan on the List.  Medal sent

                                                                                 to a residence, but then forwarded to

                                                                                 the Admiralty.


   4) BALFOUR, Andrew F.             Sub-Lieutenant   Medal sent to Commander Balfour, HMS

                                                                                 Penguin (Australian Station), Admiralty,

                                                                                 London.  Balfour captained the Penguin

                                                                                 from 1893-95.  In 1895, he made three

                                                                                 soundings in over 5,000 fathoms in the

                                                                                 Kermadec Trench, the deepest obtained

                                                                                 to that date.


   5) BETHELL, George R.               Lieutenant          Medal sent to Commander Bethell,

                                                                                 43 Curzon Street, Mayfair, London.

                                                                                 Also entitled to the Egypt 1882-89

                                                                                 Medal/no bar and Khedive's Star 1882

                                                                                 (Lieut., HMS Minotaur).  Later an MP

                                                                                 for Holderness Division, Yorkshire, for

                                                                                 many years.


   6) BROMLEY, Arthur C.B.            Lieutenant          Assistant Surveyor, 3rd Cl.  Medal sent

                                                                                 to Captain Bromley, HMS Endymion,

                                                                                 (Channel Squadron), Admiralty, London.


   7) CAMPBELL, Lord                   Sub-Lieutenant    Medal delivered by post.  Log-Letters

       George Granville                                               from The Challenger (London, 1877).



   8) CARPENTER, Alfred                Lieutenant           Medal sent to Commander Carpenter's

                                                                                  agent in Westminster, London.

                                                                                  Received the Albert Medal, 2nd Cl.

                                                                                  during the Expedition (Stanley Harbour,

                                                                                  Falkland Islands, 20 January 1876), and

                                                                                  awarded the RHS Bronze Medal for the

                                                                                  same incident.  DSO and specially MID                                        

                                                                                  for services during the annexation of

                                                                                  Burma, and received the thanks of the

                                                                                  Governement of India.  Entitled to                                                  

                                                                                  IGS/Burma 1885-7 (Commander-in-

                                                                                  Charge of the Marine Survey of India,

                                                                                  1884-September 1889); Egypt 1882-89

                                                                                  Medal/no bar (Commander, in

                                                                                  command of the survey vessel

                                                                                  Myrmidon) and Khedive's Star, 1884-86.                                     

                                                                                  In 1889, received a letter from the Indian

                                                                                  Government noting its appreciation

                                                                                  of his valuable services.  FRMS; FZS.


   9) CHANNER, Arthur                    Sub-Lieutenant    Medal sent to Captain Channer, Light 

                                                                                  House Department, Colombo, Ceylon.

                                                                                  Entitled to IGS/Burma 1885-7, when

                                                                                  Assistant Superintendent of the Indian

                                                                                  Marine Survey, and served with the

                                                                                  Naval Brigade (MID).  Assistant Super-

                                                                                  intendent, First Grade, Indian Marine

                                                                                  Survey, May 1882 to August 1887.



  10) HAVERGAL, Arthur                 Sub-Lieutenant    Assistant Surveyor 1st Cl.

       (1851 - ? )                                                            Medal sent to Captain Havergal,   

                                                                                  Hydrographic Department, Admiralty,

                                                                                  London. Specially promoted to

                                                                                  Lieutenant for services during the



   11) HIGHAM, Robert                    Actg. Carpenter   Medal sent to HMS Victory, Portsmouth.


   12) HOWLETT, William A.           Asst. Engr.           Medal sent to HMS Grafton, Chatham.

                                                        2nd Cl.


   13) HYNES, John                         Asst. Paymaster   Medal sent to HMS Northampton,



   14) MACLEAN, George                Staff Surgeon      Medal sent to Surgeon-General

                                                                                  Maclean, RN Hospital, Haslar, Gosport.


   15) MACLEAR, John                    Commander         Contributor to the Narrative.  He was

         Fiot Lee Pearse                                                 second-in-Command throughout the

         (1838-1907)                                                         entire voyage, and was afterwards

                                                                                   promoted to Captain.  Assistant

                                                                                   Surveyor, 2nd Class.  Medal delivered

                                                                                   by Dr. Murray.  Retired Vice-Admiral,

                                                                                   23 August 1897.  Entitled to

                                                                                   Crimea/Sebastopol, Baltic, Turkish

                                                                                   Crimea Medals (Midshipman/HMS

                                                                                   Algiers), China 1857- 60/Taku Forts                                                                                       

                                                                                   1860 (Lieutenant/HMS Sphinx),                                                     

                                                                                   Abyssinia 1867-68 (First Lieut./HMS

                                                                                   Octavia).  He is reputed in Dictionary

                                                                                   of National Biography 20th Century

                                                                                   and The Times' obituary to have

                                                                                   served as a Naval Cadet on HMS

                                                                                   Castor during the South African War,

                                                                                   1850-53, but he is not on the Medal

                                                                                   Roll.  In addition, a photograph of

                                                                                   Maclear wearing his miniature

                                                                                   medals does not show him with 

                                                                                   the South Africa 1834-53 Medal.

                                                                                   Admiral 1903. 






   16) NARES, George Strong           Captain                Contributor to the Reports. 

        (1831-1915)                              (1872-74)                Medal delivered by Dr. Murray.

                                                                                    Also entitled to the Arctic 1818-55

                                                                                    Medal (Mate/HMS Resolute/1852-54)

                                                                                    and Arctic 1875-76 Medal (Captain,

                                                                                    HMS Alert - Commander of the

                                                                                    Expedition). FRS (1875), RGS

                                                                                    Founder's Gold Medal (1877).  Gold

                                                                                    Medal of the SociŽtŽ de Geographie

                                                                                    de Paris.   KCB upon his return from

                                                                                    the Arctic Expedition.  Vice-Admiral                                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                    on the Retired List in 1892. 





   17) PEARCEY, Fredk. Gordon       Domestic 3rd Cl.    Assistant to scientists, with duties

                                                                                     in the chemical laboratory.

                                                                                     Medal delivered by post. 

                                                                                     Employed by the Challenger

                                                                                     Commission upon his return of the

                                                                                     Expedition.  Contributor to the

                                                                                     Reports.  Along with Writer 3rd Cl.

                                                                                     Richard Wyatt, one of only two other

                                                                                     ranks to receive the medal. 


   18) RICHARDS, R.R.A.                  Paymaster             Medal delivered to Erlands, Crondall,      

                                                                                     Hants.  Unpublished journal rests in 

                                                                                     the archives of the RGS.


   19) SLOGGETT, Henry Charles    Sub-Lieutenant      Medal sent to Honolulu, Sandwich Islands.

        (1852-1905)                                                            Later resigned his commission and went

                                                                                     to medical school in Edinburgh.  Dr. Sloggett,

                                                                                     his wife and daughter, arrived in Honolulu in

                                                                                     1896, having come from the state of Washington.

                                                                                     In 1900, he helped organized the Honolulu

                                                                                     Microscopic Society.  He was also a member of

                                                                                     the Medical Association of Hawaii and its president

                                                                                     in 1903. 


   20) SPRY, William J.J.                 Engineer                Medal delivered to Therapia, St. Andrews

        James Joseph                                                       Road, Southsea.  The Cruise of HMS Challenger

        ( ? - 1906)                                                              (London, 1880).            


   21) SWIRE, Herbert                      Sub-Lieutenant      Medal sent to Commander Swire, 

        (1851 - 1934)                                                           HMS Australia, Southampton.

                                                                                      The Voyage of the Challenger (two

                                                                                      volumes, limited edition; London,



   22) THOMSON, Frank Tourle         Captain                 In charge of survey.  Contributor to

                                                        (1875-76)                the Reports.  Medal sent to Thomson

                                                                                      at The Palace, Hampton Court, London.


   23) TIZARD, Thomas Henry          Staff Cmdr.             Asst. Surveyor, 1st Cl.  Contributor

         (1839-1924)                                                           to the Narrative and Meteorological

                                                                                     Observations.  Medal delivered by

                                                                                     Dr. Murray.  Probably entitled to the 

                                                                                     Baltic Medal. CMG (Queen's Birthday,

                                                                                     June 3, 1899).  Shown on the 1901

                                                                                     and 1907 Retired Lists with a CB, but

                                                                                     this may be in error for the CMG.

                                                                                     FRS; FRGS.


   24) WYATT, Richard                    Writer, 3rd Cl.         A Chief Petty Officer rating.  Medal 

                                                                                     delivered to 113 Powerscourt Road,

                                                                                     Portsmouth.  Along with Domestic

                                                                                     3rd Cl. Fredk. G. Pearcey, one of

                                                                                     only two other ranks to receive the

                                                                                     medal.  On 4 April 1873, Wyatt discovered

                                                                                     Schoolmaster Adam Ebbels in his hammock,

                                                                                     dead from apoplexy (stroke).
















   25) BUCHANAN, John Young         Chemist &            Contributor to the Reports.

        (1844-1925)                               Physician             Specific Gravity of Ocean Water.

                                                                                    FRS (1887).


   26) MOSELEY, Henry Nottidge       Naturalist             Medal awarded posthumously

        (1844-91)                                                               and sent to Mrs. Moseley.

                                                                                     Zoologist and Anthropologist. 

                                                                                     Notes by a Naturalist on

                                                                                     HMS Challenger (London, 1880).                                                                

                                                                                     Contributor to the Narrative.

                                                                                     Hydroid and other Corals;

                                                                                     Phosphorescent Organ of Ipnops.

                                                                                     Royal Medal (1887); MA; FRS (1877);

                                                                                     FZS; FLS.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                27) THOMSON, Sir                Director of Civilian         Medal awarded posthumously and    

      Charles Wyville              Scientific Staff               sent to a Miss Dawson (presumably

      (1830-82)                                                               a relative). Contributor to the Reports.

                                                                                   First Editor of the Reports.  Introduction  

                                                                                   of the Zoological Reports.  FRS (1869).

                                                                                   Thomson was an important proponent

                                                                                   for ocean research in the 1860s, which

                                                                                   ultimately led to the Challenger

                                                                                   Expedition.  He was the Chief Scientist

                                                                                   for the dredging voyages of HMS

                                                                                   Porcupine and Lightning, and authored

                                                                                   The Depths of the Sea (1873), which

                                                                                   summarized the findings of these

                                                                                   voyages and presented the case for a

                                                                                   global oceanographic voyage.            



   28) WILD, John James           Artist & Secretary      At Anchor:  A Narrative of

        (1828-1900)                                                          Experiences Afloat and Ashore

                                                                                   During the Voyage of H.M.S.

                                                                                   Challenger from 1872 to 1876.

                                                                                   (London, 1878).  Thalasa, an Essay

                                                                                   on the Depth, Temperature, and

                                                                                   Currents of the Ocean (London, 1877).

                                                                                   Contributor to the Reports. 

                                                                                   A Swiss national.



  29) WILLEMOES-SUHM,             Naturalist                 Medal awarded posthumously and

        Dr. Rudolf von                                                     sent to his mother.  Marine Biologist. 

        (1847-75)                                                              Died at sea of  erysipelas, aged 28,

                                                                                   13 September 1875, on passage to 

                                                                                   Tahiti, and buried at sea.  A memorial

                                                                                   tablet given to the family by Thomson,

                                                                                   Murray, Buchanan, Moseley and Wild,

                                                                                   now rests at the family burial place in

                                                                                   Bad Segeberg (about 30 miles south of





There was a conscious decision to invite the world's premier specialists to conduct the                                   investigations and write the various reports. This was done at the vigorous insistence of                                                 J.J. Thomson, who experienced considerable pressure to give a more prominent
role to British scientists.





        CONTRIBUTORS              SPECIALTIES                  NOTES

        TO THE REPORTS           AND/OR POSITIONS         



   30) AGASSIZ, Alexander             Echinoidea.                           Marine Zoologist and                    

        (1835-1910)                                                                           Oceanographer. FRS (1891).

                                                                                                    Agassiz performed extensive explor-

                                                                                                    ations in the U.S. littoral areas, prior to

                                                                                                    the Challenger Expedition.  He was an

                                                                                                    advisor and valuable assistant to

                                                                                                    Thomson immediately following the

                                                                                                    Expedition, and participated in cataloging

                                                                                                    of the specimens and forming the initial

                                                                                                    plans for the Challenger Reports.



   31) ALLMAN, George James       Hydroida.                               Marine Zoologist.  Royal                         

        (1812-98)                                                                               Medal (1873); Brisbane Gold  

                                                                                                    Gold Medal (1877); Conning-

                                                                                                    ham Gold Medal (1878); The

                                                                                                    Linnean Medal (1896).  MD; 

                                                                                                    LLD; FRCSI; FRS (1854);

                                                                                                    FRSE; MRIA; CMZS.




   32) BEDDARD, Frank Evers         Isopoda.                                Member of Editorial Staff.

        (1858-1925)                                                                          Naturalist to the Challenger

                                                                                                   Expedition Commission

                                                                                                   (1882-84).  MA; DSc; FRS

                                                                                                   (1892); Prosector of the

                                                                                                   Zoological Society (1884-

                                                                                                   1915); FRSE; FZS.


   33) BERGH, Rudolph                  Nudibranchiata;                     Invertebrate Zoologist. MD.

        (1859-1924)                            Marseniadae.



   34) BRADY, George                    Copepoda; Ostracoda.          MD; FRS (1882); FLS; FGS.                                                   






   35) BROOK, George                   Antipatharia.                         Medal awarded posthumously

        (1857-93)                                                                             and sent to his wife.  FLS; FRSE.


   36) BROOKS, William Keith       Stomatopoda.                        American Zoologist known

        (1848-1908)                                                                          for his research into the

                                                                                                   anatomy and embryology

                                                                                                   of marine animals.  Elected

                                                                                                   a Member of the National

                                                                                                   Academy of Sciences in 1884.


   37) BUCHAN, Alexander            Atmospheric and                    Meteorologist.  Medal known                                                               

         (1829-1907)                          Oceanic Circulation.               with document, held at St.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                   Columba's Hospice,  

                                                                                                   Challenger Lodge, Edinburgh.

                                                                                                   Secretary of the Scottish

                                                                                                   Meteorological Society in

                                                                                                   Edinburgh.  MA; LLD.

                                                                                                   FRS (1898).



   38) BUSK, George                      Polyzoa.                                 Medal known.  Named

        (1807-86)                                                                              "GEORGE BUSK", and

                                                                                                    awarded posthumously.

                                                                                                    Ex-Surgeon, Royal Navy.

                                                                                                    Parasitologist, Zoologist

                                                                                                    and Palaeontologist.  RS

                                                                                                    Royal Medal (1871); GS

                                                                                                    Wollaston Medal and Lyell

                                                                                                    Medal.  X-Club Member. 11

                                                                                                    FRS (1850); FGS.  Busk appears

                                                                                                    in the group photograph of

                                                                                                    the Royal Society's scientific

                                                                                                    party onboard the Challenger

                                                                                                    (December 1872). 





  39) CARPENTER, Philip Herbert   Comatulae and                      Medal awarded posthumously

        (1852-91)                                 Stalked Crinoids.                   and sent to his wife.

                                                                                                    Crinoidologist (Zoologist &

                                                                                                    Palaeontologist).  FRS (1885); FLS.

                                                                                                    Son of William Benjamin Carpenter

                                                                                                    (1813-85), a physiologist who contributed

                                                                                                    to the Reports, but is oddly absent from

                                                                                                    Challenger Medal List.




  40) CHUMLEY, James                   Secretary to the                     Acknowledged in the

                                                      Director & Editor.                   Challenger Reports for

                                                                                                    his assistance.


  41) COMBER, Thomas                  Contributor to                        

                                                      the Narrative.


  42) CREAK, Ettrick W.                   Magnetical Results.              Medal sent to Staff Commander            

       (1835-1920)                                                                           Creak, Hydrographic Department,

                                                                                                   Admiralty, London.  Medal exists

                                                                                                    to 'E.W. CREAK'.  Promoted to

                                                                                                    Second Master, 9 December

                                                                                                    1858.  Captain, RN, in 1901,

                                                                                                    and Director of Compasses

                                                                                                    in the RN's Hydrographer's

                                                                                                    Dept.  Instructions for the

                                                                                                    set of magnetic instrucments

                                                                                                    used by the 1901-04 British

                                                                                                    National Antarctic Expedi-

                                                                                                    tion were supplied by Creak.

                                                                                                    FRS (1885); KCB (1901).


  43) CUNNINGHAM, Daniel John     Marsupialia.                         MD; FRS (1891); FRSE.



  44) CUNNINGHAM,                        Contributor to                       Posted to the Royal College of          

        Joseph Thomas                      the Narrative.                       Surgeons, London.




  45) DENDY, Arthur                         Monaxonida.                        Zoologist. BSc; FRS (1908);

       (1865-1925)                                                                            FLS.


  46) DITTMAR, William                   Composition of                     Chemist. FRS (1882); FRSE  

       (1833-92)   (Wilhelm)                Ocean Water.                        (1863); Fellow, Institute

                                                                                                    of Chemistry; Chemical

                                                                                                    Society of London' s

                                                                                                    Graham Medal; Hon. LLD,

                                                                                                    Edinburgh University.


  47) FINSCH, Friedrich                   Birds of Tongatabu               Naturalist.  The Finsch

       Hermann Otto                          and the Fiji Islands.              Crater on the Moon is

       (1839-1917)                                                                            named in his honor.


  48) FORBES, William A.                Anatomy of Tubinares;         FLS; FGS; MBOU.

                                                       Birds of Cape York, &c.         Posted to Mrs. Forbes.


  49) FULTON, Thomas                    Member of the                      MD (1884); FRSE.

       Alexander Wemyss                  Editorial Staff.



  50) GIBSON, John                         Analysis of Manganese



  51) GRAFF, Ludwig Von                Myzotomida.                        Zoologist.



  52) G†NTHER, Albert                     Shore Fish; Pelagic             MA; MD; PhD; FLS;

        Charles Lewis Gotthilf             Fish; Deep-sea Fish.            FRS (1867).  Royal Achive

        (1830-1914)                                                                           Winner (RS, 1878).


  53) HAECKEL, Ernst                       Radiolaria; Deep-sea           Biologist & Philosopher.

       (1834-1919)                               Medusae; Deep-sea             MD; PhD.; Hon. FRSE.



  54) HADDON, Alfred Cort               Polyplacophora.                  Zoologist & Anthropologist.                

       (1855-1940)                                                                           Regarded as one of modern

                                                                                                   British anthropology.  FRS

                                                                                                   (1899); MRIA.


  55) HARMER, Sidney Frederic       Cephalodiscus.                    Zoologist;  FRS (1898).



  56) HEMSLEY, William Botting       Botany of the Expedition.   Botanist and Taxonomist.                                                

       (1843-1924)                                                                           FRS (1889).


  57) HENDERSON,                           Anomura.

       John Robertson



  58) HERDMAN, William Abbott       Member of Editorial            Marine Zoologist and 

       (1858-1924)                                Staff.  Tunicata.                  Oceanographer.  President

                                                                                                   of the Liverpool Geological

                                                                                                   Society (1898-1900), being

                                                                                                   awarded the Society's Silver

                                                                                                   Medal (1922). Knighted (1922).

                                                                                                   DSc; FRS (1892); FLS; FRSE.      


  59) HERTWIG, Richard                   Actiniaria.                           Zoologist.  Knighted (1910).

       Karl Wilhelm Theodor von



  60) HOEK, Paulus P.C.                   Cirripedia; Pycnogonida.    Marine Zoologist.  Member,

       (1845-1914)                                                                           Royal Academy of Sciences



  61) HORSLEY, Reginald Ernest      Member of Editorial Staff.


  62) HOYLE, William Evans             Member of Editorial            Malacologist.  MA (Oxon.);

       (1855-1926)                                Staff.  Cephalopoda.          MRCS; FRSE.


  63) HUBRECHT, A.A.W.                  Nemertea.                           Zoologist.  LLD; CMZS.



  64) HUXLEY, Thomas Henry           Spirula.                              Medal awarded posthumously

       (1825-95)                                                                              and sent to his wife.  FRS (1851);

                                                                                                   Royal Medal (1852); President of

                                                                                                   the Royal Society (1883-85).  X Club

                                                                                                   member.11  Known as 'Darwin's Bulldog'.



  65) K…LLIKER, Rudoph                  Pennatulida.                       FRS (1860);  Copley Medal                                 

       Albert Von                                                                           (1897); FMRS; Hon. FRSE.                  



  66) LANKESTER, Edwin Ray          Invertebrate                        Medal sent to the Zoology Laboratory,

       (1847-1929)                                 Zoologist                           University of Oxford.  A disciple of

                                                                                                   Huxley, Lankester's father (Edwin) was

                                                                                                   a medical doctor and friend of Huxley's.

                                                                                                   Director of London's Natural History

                                                                                                   Museum from 1898-1907).  FRS (1875).                                                                        


  67) LENDENFELD, Robert von        Phosphorescent                 Spongiologist and 

       (1858-1913)                                Organs of Fish.                  Cnidariologist.


  68) LƒOPOLD, Alexandre               Caecidae.                          Malacologist.

       Guillaume, Marquis de Folin



  69) LINSTOW, Otto Von                  Entozoa.                            Helminthologist.  MD.



  70) LYMAN III, Theodore                Ophiuroidea.                      Naturalist.  Served in the

       (1833-97)                                                                              American Civil War as a

                                                                                                  Lieutenant-Colonel and

                                                                                                  Aide-de-Camp on Gen.

                                                                                                  George G. Meade's staff.



  71) McINTOSH (M'Intosh), William   Annelida;                          Botanist and Marine

       Carmichael                                Cephalodiscus;                  Zoologist.  Professor

       (1838-1931)                                 Phoronis.                           of Natural History,

                                                                                                   University of St. Andrews

                                                                                                   (1882-1917). MB; LLD;

                                                                                                   FRS (1877).


  72) MILL, Hugh Robert                     Contributor to                    Geographer and for ten                   

       (1861-1950)                                  the Narrative.                     years Librarian at the RGS.


  73) MILNE-EDWARDS, Alphonse     Ornithologist  and              Medal sent to the Natural                                                     

       (1835-1900)                                 Carcinologist                     History Museum, Paris.


  74) MURRAY, George Robt. Milne   Cryptogamic                      Published An Introduction to  

       (1858-1911)                                 Botanist                             the Study of Seaweeds (1895).

                                                                                                   Posted to the British Museum,



  75) PARKER, William Kitchen         Development of the           Marine Zoologist and

       (1823-90)                                    Green Turtle.                      Naturalist.  FRS (1865);

                                                                                                   Royal Medal (1866).


  76) PELSENEER, Paul                     Pteropoda; Anatomy of      Chemistry Teacher and

       (1863-1945)                                 Mollusca; Spirula.              Amateur Malacologist.



  77) PIGOTT, T. Digby                      Ornithology.                       Medal known.  Named

       (1840-1927)                                                                           "T. DIGBY PIGOTT".

                                                                                                    Ornithologist.  CB (1890);

                                                                                                    Knighthood (1906).


  78) POLƒJAEFF, Nicolai                 Calcarea; Keratosa.            Spongiologist.  MA.                                                                                                                   



  79) QUELCH, John Joseph              Reef Corals.                        Zoologist.  BSc (Lond.).

       (1854 - ? )


  80) RENARD, Alphonse-Franois     Deep-sea Deposits;             Geologist and

       (1842-1903)                                 Petrology of St. Paul's        Petrographer.  Bigsby

                                                         Rocks.                                 Medal (London Geological

                                                                                                    Society, 1885).



  81) RIDLEY, Stuart Oliver                Monaxonida.                      Medal known. 

       (1853-1935)                                                                            Named 'S.O. RIDLEY'.

                                                                                                    Spongiologist.  MA; FLS.


  82) SALVADORI PALEOTTI,            Birds of Ternate,                Ornithologist.  Last of the

       Count Adelaro Tommaso          Amboyna, &c.                     original  Honorary

       (1835-1923)                                                                           Fellows of the AOU.


  83) SALVIN, Osbert                         Steganopodes;                  Ornithologist. The Godman- 

       (1835-98)                                    Impennes;                          Salvin Medal of The British

                                                        Procellariidae.                   Ornithologists' Union, is

                                                                                                   named after him.


  84) SARS, Georg Ossian                 Schizopoda; Cumacea;      Marine Biologist.

       (1837-1927)                                 Phyllocarida.


  85) SAUNDERS, Howard                 Laridae.                              Ornithologist.  FZS; FLS.



  86) SCHULZE, Franz Eilhard           Hexactinellida.                   Zoologist.    





  87) SCLATER, Philip Lutley            Birds of the Admiralty        Ornithologist.  FRS (1861);

       (1829-1913)                                        Islands, &c.                 FLS; Co-founder of The

                                                                                                   Society for the Preservation

                                                                                                   of Wild Fauna of the Empire



  88) SELENKA, Emil                         Gephyrea.                          Marine Zoologist.                



  89) SLADEN, W. Percy                    Asteroidea.                        Marine Zoologist.                  

       (1849-1900)                                                                           FZS; FLS; FGS.


  90) SMITH, Edgar Albert                 Lamellibranchiata;             Malacologist.  At the  

       (1847-1916)                                Heteropoda.                        British Museum.  FZS.


  91) SOLLAS, William Johnson      Tetractinellida.                   Geologist.  Other scientific

       (1849-1936)                                                                           interests included zoological

                                                                                                   anthropological subjects,

                                                                                                   and in his later years,

                                                                                                   became a leading authority

                                                                                                   in the latter.  MA; DSc; LLD;

                                                                                                   FRS (1889).


  92) STEBBING, Thomas                  Amphipoda.                       Cleric and Gentleman-

       Roscoe Rede                                                                       Naturalist.  MA; FRS (1896).



  93) STUDER, Theophil                    Alcyonaria.                         Zoologist.  MD and PhD.



  94) TAIT, Peter Guthrie                  Pressure Errors of the         Physicist and Mathematician.

       (1831-1901)                                Thermometers; Physical     FRSE; Royal Society's Royal

                                                        Properties of Water.           Medal (1886); Hon. Fellow of

                                                                                                   Edinburgh Maths Society.


  95) THƒEL, Hjalmar                        Holothurioidea.                   Zoologist.          



  96) THISELTON-DYER,                    Systematic                         Medal sent to the Royal Gardens, Kew.              

       Dr. William Turner                      Botanist                            Director of Kew (1885-1905).  FRS (1880);

       (1843-1928)                                                                           KCMG; CIE.  He was Sir Joseph Dalton

                                                                                                   Hooker's son-in-law.


  97) THOMSON, Sir John Arthur           Translator of                  Naturalist.  Knighted (1930).     

       (1861-1933)                                Zoological Reports.


  98) TURNER, Sir William                Cetacea; Pinnipedia;          Anatomist.  MB; LLD;

       (1832-1916)                                Human Skeletons.              FRS (1877); FRSSL&E.


  99) WATERS, Arthur William          Polyzoa.                             Zoologist.  FLS; FGS.

       ( ? - 1930)


100) WATSON, Morrison                   Anatomy of the                   Anatomist.  MD; FRS (1884);

       (1846-85)                                    Spheniscidae.                    FRSE.


101) WATSON, Rev. Robert Boog     Gasteropoda.                      Medal known.  Chaplain,                                             

       (1823-1910)                                                                           Royal Army; Zoologist.

                                                                                                   LLD; FLS; FGS; FRSE.




102) WRIGHT, Edward Perceval        Alcyonaria.                        Marine Zoologist. MA;

       (1834-1910)                                                                           MD; Sec. MRIA.





                                               AND/OR POSITIONS


103) ANDERSON, W.S.                    ?                                                      


104) BLACK, William S.          Edinburgh Artist                 Designer of the Challenger Medal.


105) DICKSON,                        Edinburgh hydrographer   Friend of Sir John Murray.

       Henry Newton



106) FOSTER, Michael            Physiologist                       FRS (1872).  KCB (1899).  From 1881-1903,              

       (1836-1907)                                                                 one of the secretaries of the Royal Society.


107) GOSCHEN, Rt. Hon.         Member of Parliament       First Lord of the Admiralty (1871-74 and

       George Joachim                                                        1895-1900).  Chancellor of the Exchequer

       (1831-1907)                                                                 (1886-1892).  The latter position may be

                                                                                         the reason he was issued a medal.  Goschen

                                                                                         may have assisted with funds to publish the



108) IRVINE, Robert                 Chemist                             FRSE.  Co-authored papers in the Proceedings                       

       (1839-1902)                                                                 of the Royal Society of Edinburgh.  Among others,

                                                                                         he was one of the instigators of the Scottish Marine




109) MONTEITH, Dr. James             ?                                Medal List states:  'handed to Mrs. Monteith,

                                                                                         per Lily Murray August 27, 1895'.


110) MURRAY, Mrs.                         ?                                Acknowledged in the Challenger Reports for her                                

                                                                                        assistance.  Evidently not Sir John Murray's wife.


111) NANSEN, Fridtjof              Polar Explorer                  Presented personally by Dr. Murray on  

       (1861-1930)                                                                 15 February 1897.  The medal was doubtlessly

                                                                                         given in recognition of the oceanographic

                                                                                         work carried out by Nansen during the Fram

                                                                                         Expedition (1893-96).


112) PULLAR, Laurence          Financer (?)                      Medal known.  Named

       (1838-1926)                                                                'LAURENCE PULLAR'.  FRSE

                                                                                        (1903) and FRGS; LLD, University

                                                                                        of Edinburgh (1926) in recognition       

                                                                                        of his generosity in the promotion           

                                                                                        of scientific research. Pullar was a

                                                                                        life-long friend of Sir John Murray,

                                                                                        and this association drew him into

                                                                                        his interest in scientific research.           

                                                                                        With Pullar's financial aid, a steam

                                                                                        yacht was built and equipped for                                                                                                         

                                                                                        oceanographical work near the

                                                                                        shores of Scottish sea-lochs, which

                                                                                        enabled Murray to carry on these

                                                                                        investigations for several years.

                                                                                        This is but one example of Pullar's

                                                                                        financial assistance toward the

                                                                                        advancement of science.  It is

                                                                                        claimed in some writings that

                                                                                        Murray did not tolerate the red tape

                                                                                        of government, and when the

                                                                                        Treasury became stubborn, he

                                                                                        spent his own money to bring out

                                                                                        volumes of the Report.12  It would

                                                                                        seem possible that Pullar also put

                                                                                        money toward the publishing, and

                                                                                        perhaps as a result of these

                                                                                        financial contributions, was given

                                                                                        a Challenger Medal by Murray.  To

                                                                                        date, however, the author has not

                                                                                        uncovered any direct link between

                                                                                        Pullar, the Challenger Expedition

                                                                                        or the Reports.


113) RICHARDS, George Henry  Rear Admiral                 FRS (1866); CB (Civil/1871); Knighted

       (1820-96)                                                                   (1877); KCB (1886); Arctic 1818-55 Medal 

                                                                                        (Commander/HMS Assistance/1852-54).

                                                                                        Richards had an extensive background

                                                                                        as a surveying officer, and in 1864,

                                                                                        was appointed Hydrographer of the Navy.

                                                                                        He retired from the RN in January 1874,

                                                                                        and in December of that year, served on

                                                                                        a committee to plan the Arctic Expedition

                                                                                        of 1875.  Richards appears in the group

                                                                                        photograph of the Royal Society's scientific                                                                                                           

                                                                                        party onboard the Challenger (December 1872).



114) THE ROYAL SOCIETY                                               Sent to Burlington House, London.


115) SCOTT, A.R.                              ?                             Hand delivered to recipient at the Challenger Office.

                                                                                        Acknowledged in the Challenger Reports for his



116) SCLATER, Miss                          ?                             Possibly the daughter of Philip Lutley Sclater.

                                                                                        Acknowledged in the Challenger Reports for                                           

                                                                                        her assistance.





117) SMITH, Irvine                             ?                             Issued unengraved.



118) TURBYNE, Alexander         Merchant Captain          In the Reports, Turbyne is described

       ( ? - 1905)                                                                  as 'being in charge of the Marine

                                                                                        Biological Station at Millport' and

                                                                                        having been for many years

                                                                                        'Captain of Dr. Murray's steam

                                                                                        Yacht 'Medusa' '.  The Marine

                                                                                        Biological Station at Millport was

                                                                                        established on the Isle of Cumbrae

                                                                                        in the Firth of Clyde, in the spring

                                                                                        of 1885.  The Report relates that

                                                                                        Turbyne 'worked for over 13 years

                                                                                        under Dr. Murray's instructions

                                                                                        (including 10 years consecutively)',

                                                                                        conducting practical investigations

                                                                                        'while matters strictly scientific

                                                                                         were undertaken and prepared for

                                                                                         press by men with a scientific

                                                                                         training.'  The above would explain

                                                                                         the award of the Challenger Medal.

                                                                                         At some point, Turbyne live aboard

                                                                                         The Ark, a lighter converted into a

                                                                                         floating laboratory by Murray.  The

                                                                                         Ark marked the establishment of the

                                                                                         Marine Station at Millport, the oldest

                                                                                         in Scotland.  Turbyne evidently went

                                                                                         to work for the Fisheries Department

                                                                                         of Cape Colony in 1898, and died as

                                                                                         a result of a gun accident in East

                                                                                         London, South Africa, on 15 July 1905.


119) WEIR, Mrs.                                ?                               Sent 'C/O James Murray, Supt.

                                                                                         Can. Pac. Rl. [Canadain Pacific

                                                                                         Railroad], Winnipeg, Manitoba'.

                                                                                         Acknowledged in the Challenger

                                                                                         Reports for her assistance.


120) One unengraved medal.                                           Taken to Holland by Dr. Murray.







Below are individuals who do not appear on the List of Recipients of the Challenger Medal,

but who were evidently in every way entitled to the award, whether through participation in

the voyage or having contributed to the Reports.  Though it is possible that medals were not issued

to some of these men due to their deaths, Busk, Carpenter and Huxley are a few examples of

posthumously awarded medals.  Perhaps some families could not be traced?  As for the naval

officers/warrant officers, excepting Commander Lloyd, it is possible that the other RN men had left

the Service and could not be traced.  But this again does not offer a certain answer to the question

of why these men do not appear on the List.



     ROYAL NAVY                        RANKS                             NOTES



    1) COX, Richard                          Boatswain                           In charge of stores.


    2) CROSBIE, Alexander              Staff Surgeon


    3) FERGUSON, James H.            Chief Engineer                     In charge of engines.


    4) HARSTON, Henry C.E.             Sub-Lieutenant


    5) LLOYD, Edward W.                 Sub-Lieutenant                    Retired Commander on

                                                                                                   Sept. 15, 1899. Emergency

                                                                                                   List, 1901.  Cmdr., Tyneside

                                                                                                   Division, RNVR, April 1, 1905.

                                                                                                   In charge of Ordnance Dept.

                                                                                                   of Messrs. Armstrong, 

                                                                                                   Witworth & Co., Elswick.  CB

                                                                                                   (Civil) on the coronation of

                                                                                                   King George V, June 19, 1911.





    6) MARCOM, Alfred                     Asst. Surgeon


    7) OLDHAM, Cecil F.                   Sub-Lieutenant


    8) WESTFORD, Fredk. W.           Carpenter








    9) BATE, Charles Spence            Macrura.                              Invertebrate Zoologist                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

       (1819-89)                                                                              and practicing Dentist. 

                                                                                                   Licentiate Royal College of

                                                                                                   Surgeons; President, Odonto-

                                                                                                   logical Society (1885).FRS                                                               

                                                                                                   (1861); FLS.


  10) BRADY, Henry Bowman          Foraminifera.                       FRS (1874); FLS; FGS.




  11) CARPENTER,                          Orbitolites.                            Physiologist who 

        William Benjamin                                                               published extensively in                            

        (1813-85)                                                                              fields as far apart as mental

                                                                                                   physiology, microscopy,

                                                                                                   marine biology and religion.

                                                                                                   Lyell Medal (1883).  CB; MD;

                                                                                                   LLD; FRS (1844); FGS.  Father

                                                                                                   of Philip Herbert Carpenter.



  12) CASTRACANE degli               Diatomaceae.                       Biologist.  He was one of

        Antelminelli,                                                                      the first to introduce micro-

        Conte Francesco                                                                photography into the study

        (1817-99)                                                                             of biology.







  13) DAVIDSON, Thomas               Brachiopoda.                         Palaeontologist.  FRS

       (1817-85)                                                                               (1857)-Royal Medal (1870);

                                                                                                    FGS-Wollaston Medal

                                                                                                    (1865); Honorary degree

                                                                                                    by the University of St.

                                                                                                    Andrews (1882); FLS;





14) GARROD, Alfred Henry            Anatomy of Carpophaga.       Vertebrate Zoologist.

      (1846-79)                                                                                 FRS (1876)




15) HAY, Arthur                             Birds of the Philippines.         The Ornithological Works                                                                             

     (9th Marquis of Tweeddale)                                                   of Arthur, Ninth Marquis

     (1824-78)                                                                                 of Tweeddale (1881).  Served

                                                                                                   as a soldier in India and the

                                                                                                   Crimea.  President of the

                                                                                                   Zoological Society of

                                                                                                   London.  FRS (1871).    



16) MIERS, Edward John              Brachyura.                              Curator of the Natural

     (1851-1930)                                                                              History Museum in

                                                                                                    London (1872-85). 

                                                                                                    FZS; FLS.



17) WHITE, Francis Buchanan      Pelagic Hemiptera.                 Entomologist.  MD; FLS.                                                                         






Summary of Sir John Murray's Titles & Awards, Etc.


Note:  Murray is not shown on the List as receiving a medal.  This may well be an

          indication of the gentleman's modesty, as he evidently did not have a medal

          engraved for himself.  Still, the total number of medals cast is unknown, so

          he more than likely kept an unnamed specimen for himself.



MURRAY, Sir John                        Naturalist                Considered the founder

(1841-1914)                                                                   of modern oceanography. 

                                                                                    Seven of the 50 volumes of the

                                                                                    Challenger Reports were written

                                                                                    largely or entirely by Murray.  He

                                                                                    was also the Editor, contributor

                                                                                    to the Narrative and wrote the

                                                                                    Summary of Results.  Deep-Sea

                                                                                    Deposits.  FRS (1896); FRSE.

                                                                                    Cuvier Prize & Medal (Institute of

                                                                                    France/1894); Humbodt Medal            

                                                                                    (Berlin Society of Geography/1895);

                                                                                    Royal Medal (RS/1895); Founders

                                                                                    Medal (RGS/1895); Neill Medal (RSE/

                                                                                    1880); Makdougall-Brisbane Medal

                                                                                    (RSE/1886); Order of Pour le MŽrite

                                                                                    for Arts & Sciences (Prussia/1898);

                                                                                    Cullum Medal (AGS/1899); Clarke

                                                                                    Memorial Medal (RSNSW/1901);

                                                                                    LŸtke Medal (IRSG/1904); Livingstone

                                                                                    Medal (RSGS/1910); Grand Cross of

                                                                                    the Royal Order of St. Olav (Norway/

                                                                                    1910); Helen Culver Medal (GSC/1911);

                                                                                    Vega Medal (SAGS/1912); Agassiz

                                                                                    Gold Medal (Academy of Sciences,

                                                                                    Washington/special copy/1913).

                                                                                    Murray created the Alexander Agassiz

                                                                                    Medal in honor of his friend.  The medal

                                                                                    is awarded for an original contribution

                                                                                    in the science of oceanography.

                                                                                    KCB (1898).  In 1886, he put forth a plan

                                                                                    to send two ships on a major Antarctic

                                                                                    expedition.  Although it was never

                                                                                    put into action, eight years later, the

                                                                                    RGS used his ideas to promote the

                                                                                    British National Antarctic Expedition.








Actg. -  Acting

AOU  -  American Ornithologists' Union

Asst. -   Assistant

CB    -   Companion of the Order of the Bath

CIE   -   Companion of the Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire

Cmdr. - Commander

CMZS -  Charter Member Zoological Society (?)

CVO -   Commander Victorian Order

DSO -   Distinguished Service Order

Engr. -  Engineer

FGS   -  Fellow of the Geological Society

FLS    - Fellow of the Linnean Society

FRCSI - Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland

FRGS -  Fellow Royal Geographical Society

FRMS - Fellow of the Royal Meteorlogical Society

FRS -    Fellow of the Royal Society

FRSE -  Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh

FRSSL&E - Fellow of the Royal Societies of London & Edinburgh

FZS -    Fellow of the Zoological Society of London

GSC -   Geographic Society of Chicago

Hon. -   Honorary

IGS -    India General Service Medal 1854-95

IRGS -  Imperial Russian Geographical Society

KCB -   Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath

KCMG- Knight Commander of the Most Distinguished Order of St. Michael and St. George

LLD -    Legum Doctor (Doctor of Law)

MB  -    Bachelor of Medicine                                                                                                               

MID -    Mentioned in Despatches

MRCS- Member of the Royal College of Surgeons

MRIA -  Member Royal Irish Academy

RHS -   Royal Humane Society

RN   -   Royal Navy

RNVR - Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve

RS -     Royal Society (London)

RSA -   Royal Society of Arts

RSE -   Royal Society of Edinburgh

RSGS - The Royal Scottish Geographical Society

RSNSW - The Royal Society of New South Wales

SAGS - Swedish Anthropological & Geographical Society

VPPS - Vice President of the Palaeontographical Society






Ms. Clara Anderson

Dr. David C. Bossard

Dr. David M. Damkaer

Mr. Roy L. Davids

Dr. Margaret Deacon

Ms. Judith Farrington

Mr. Daniel Fearon

Dix Noonan Webb (DNW)

Mr. Mark Sikes

Mr. John I. Simper

Ms. Barbara Tomlinson

Mr. Martin Wagner

Mr. Bryan Williamson




Sources (2005)


Alder, Jenny (2005) The Stebbing Collection.  Foyle Special Collections Library,                                                          King's College London. (2005)

Archives Hub (2005) Collection of Correspondence of Frank Evers Beddard (1858-1925)

Biographical Database of the British Chemical Community, 1880-1970

Boog-Watson, W.N. (1967) Sir John Murray, A Chronic Student.

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Bourner, Karen (2000) Laurel or Bay - Laurus Nobilis.                                 

Brown, Laurence (1987) A Catalogue of British Historical Medals 1837-1901.                                                               London:  Seaby.

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Crane, Walter (1897) Challenger Expedition Reports. Portraits of the Contributors,                                                   Reproduced from the Photographs Presented by Them to John Murray, etc.                                                                     London:  Dulau & Co.

Davie, Peter (Compiler).  2001.  MALACOSTRACA Latreille, 1802                                                       ;pstrTaxa=1;pstrChecklistMode=1

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Fellows of the Royal Society of Edinburgh (2003)                                                                                                         

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The Geological Society

Gill, Mrs. (1880) Six Months in Ascension:  An Unscientific Account of a                                                                       Scientific Expedition.  London:  John Murray.

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Jensen, J. Vernon (1970) The X Club:  Fraternity of Victorian Scientists.                                                                            The British Journal for the History of Science.  Cambridge:  Cambridge University Press.

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Linklater, Eric (1972) The Voyage of the Challenger.                                                                                                          New York:  Doubleday and Company Inc.

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Ryne, Linn.  Undated.  Fridtjof Nansen:  Man of Many Faces.                                                                               

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 1   Boog-Watson, 1967.


 2   Nature, 1895.


 3   Ibid.


 4  McManus.


 5   P. Rodger, Appeals Officer, March 27, 1995.


 6   Bourner, 2000.


 7   Linklater, 1972 and Brown, 1987.


 8   C. J. Burnett, Curator of Fine Art and Medals, 12 January 1995, and Eimer, 1987.


 9   Rodger, op.cit. and B. Tomlinson, Curator, Antiquities,  Aug. 5, 1998.


10  Tomlinson, ibid.


11  The X Club was a dinner club formed in 1864 by nine eminent scientists, who had long been intimate friends, so

     they would not drift apart due to their various duties, and in order to further the cause of science.  The Club

     held monthly meetings from October to June, and was extremely active for two decades, but this activity gradually

     lessened.  The regular communication helped X Club members to gather their efforts on behalf of science against

     what they felt to be the obstructionist activities and ideas of conservative scientists, certain theologians, and non-

     scientific society figures.  Members at the birth of the X Club were:  George Busk (1807- 86), Joseph D. Hooker (1817-

     1911), Herbert Spencer (1820-1923), John Tyndall (1820-93), Edward Frankland (1825-99), Thomas Henry Huxley (1825-

     95), Thomas Archer Hirst (1830-92) and John Lubbock (1834-1913).  William Spottiswoode (1825-83) became the ninth

     member of the Club at its second meeting.  Much of the discussion at the meetings focused on the affairs of the

     Royal Society.  By 1864, all were Fellows of the Royal Society, except Spencer who, due to principle and possible

     resentment, flatly refused to agree to his being nominated.  The X Club exerted important influence in the Royal

     Society, in the British Association, in various other scholarly societies, in the Royal Institution, and in the publishing

     of scientific works.


12  Linklater, 1972.


13   Shipley, Sir Arthur E. (Zoologist 1861-1927)